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Examination Style Questions Some psychologists believe that human and non-human behaviour can be explained in terms of evolutionary processes. • What is meant by the term evolution? (2 marks) • Give an example of one behaviour, suggest how this behaviour can be explained in terms of evolutionary processes (2 marks)
(a) What is meant by the term evolution? (2 marks) • AO1 One mark for brief recognition of the term. • Two marks for clear outline of the term. • Possible answer: Evolution refers to the change over successive generations (AO1, 1) of the characteristics/make-up of a population (genetic or social) (AO1, 1). • Credit answers which refer to selective pressures; the natural selection of certain characteristics, as in survival of the fittest.
(b) Give an example of one behaviour, suggest how this behaviour can be explained in terms of evolutionary processes (2 marks) • One mark for an appropriate example but brief or slightly muddled account. • Two marks for an appropriate example with clear explanation. • Likely answers: sexual selection; mating strategies; parental investment; bonding; emotions; aggression; temperament; rooting reflex.
Learning Objectives and Outcomes • Learning Objectives: • To know the history of the behaviourist approach • To understand the process of classical conditioning • Learning Outcome = To apply knowledge of classical conditioning to various scenarios
This is Cleo. Whenever the cupboard door under the steps in the kitchen is opened she runs up to it and meows, why might this be? Can you explain Cleo’s behaviour?
Behaviourism: Timeline • TASK: complete your timeline using the information around the room!
Behaviourism: Timeline • John Locke (1690) Tabula Rasa • Edward Thorndike (1898) Law of Effect - Cats • Ivan Pavlov (1904) Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine • John Watson – (1913) first psychologist to coin the term ‘behaviourism’ • Skinner (1938)
John Locke (1690) • A philosopher • Described the mind as a ‘tabula rasa’ or blank slate • ALL behaviour is learnt from the environment
Edward Thorndike (1898) • Discovered the Law of Effect in his experiments with cats in ‘puzzle boxes’ • Law of Effect = Behaviour changes because of its consequences • Cats were placed in a box whereby the only way to escape was to operate a lever • Through trial and error the cat eventually learns the correct response • Influenced Skinner to come up operant conditioning
Ivan Pavlov (1904) • Created the theory of Classical Conditioning • Won a Nobel prize for his work in 1904 You need to know what I did in lots of detail so you’ll return to me later on in this lesson!
John Watson (1913) • First psychologist to coin the term ‘behaviourism’ • A radical behaviourist – said that thoughts and feelings could not be measured accurately therefore psychology should be the ‘objective study of observable behaviour and responses’ • Believed in empirical research (gaining knowledge through direct observation) • Stated that laws of learning in animals could be applied to humans
John Watson • “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors”
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1938) • Developed operant conditioning • Everything is learnt due to consequences – reward or punishment More on me next lesson!
Classical Conditioning • Pavlov was a physiologist who conducted research on the digestive system of dogs • The video will summarise the basics of what Pavlov did Back to me!
TASK 1 • Using your resource sheet for info make notes on the process of learning which takes place in this video via classical conditioning
TASK 2 • You are going to use your knowledge of classical conditioning to explain the behaviour shown in the various scenarios around the room • You should include the: NS, UCS, UCR and CR in each case – just like the resource sheet for Pavlov’s dogs
Back to Cleo! Using the knowledge you have gained during this lesson can you now explain the US, UR, CS, and CR in this case