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European Colonies in America. The English In Virginia. King James Charter Plymouth Company and London Company allowed to establish “Joint-Stock Companies” The 1 st Corporation ever established Companies must: Colonize the territory, maintain it, and govern the area

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the english in virginia
The English In Virginia
  • King James Charter
    • Plymouth Company and London Company allowed to establish “Joint-Stock Companies”
      • The 1st Corporation ever established
    • Companies must:
      • Colonize the territory, maintain it, and govern the area
      • In return: King allowed all profits to flow to investors instead of him
the english in virginia jamestown
The English in Virginia--Jamestown
  • Colony was led by John Smith
  • Horrible location—swamps, natives
  • English Settlers:
    • Upper-middle class gentlemen not used to manual labor
  • 1608: Group 2 arrives from England
    • By this time only 38/100 still alive
  • John Smith
  • Led raids against other natives to steal food
    • Imposed military rule in colony
      • “Those who don’t work, don’t eat”
virginia establishment of a political system
Virginia—establishment of a political system
  • The House of Burgesses
    • July 1619: All settlements in Virginia meet via representatives
    • Had the power to tax, make laws with approval by Royal Governor
    • Americas first taste of democracy

Did You Know:

The Iroquois League has a similar system to the H.O.B. many historians believe that the colonists borrowed the idea from the Iroquois

virginia colonial workers
VirginiaColonial Workers
  • Indentured Servants: hired English people who worked a # of years. The employer would grant food, shelter, and passage to America.
    • At the end of the term Servants were supposed to receive a small piece of land

Why use Slaves?

1.Servants had rights as English, slaves did not

2. Slaves could not run away like servants or N.A.

3. No pay, land grants, or freedom for slaves

4. If escaped, could not blend into population

5. Slaves less likely to rebel

massachusetts the puritans
MassachusettsThe Puritans
  • Anglican Church in England
  • Puritan: Wanted to purify the church by making further reforms
  • Dissent in England meant you would be persecuted
massachusetts boston
  • Success of Plymouth inspired other Puritans to move
  • Massachusetts Bay Company:
    • Establish Massachusetts Colony
    • 1630: John Winthrop: 11 ships / 700 colonists
    • Established Boston, Salem, Watertown, Concord, and many others
rhode island
Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams – Boston Dissenter
    • Believed in Religious tolerance
    • Separation of Church and State
    • Believed in purchasing land from N.A./ not seizure
  • Purchased lands from Local Natives
    • -Set up the colony of Providence, Rhode Island
    • -All Religions accepted, even Jews
    • -Gov. and Church were completely separate
new hampshire
New Hampshire
  • Anne & Will Hutchinson
    • Banished from Mass. Because of beliefs
    • Established New Hampshire
    • Became a royal colony under direct control of King
the middle southern colonies
The Middle & Southern Colonies
  • 1640’s: English Civil War
    • Monarchy vs. Parliament (Led by Cromwell)
    • Parliament wins and has power for several years
  • Charles II & the Restoration:
    • King Charles owed a lot of people money/ favors for supporting him during the Civil war
    • Repaid debts through land grants in America
  • Proprietary colonies:
    • Grants of Land to loyal friends, the friends became lord governor of the land
    • only answerable to the King
    • Paid Taxes to the Crown
the middle southern colonies new york
The Middle & Southern ColoniesNew York
  • Proprietary Colony to Charles Brother, James Duke of York (except Dutch controlled land)
    • What About New Amsterdam?
  • 1664: English Fleet sailed into New Amsterdam Harbor – demanded the colony
    • Very diverse colony –Dutch allowed Germans, Jews, slaves, etc
    • religious tolerance
new jersey
New Jersey
  • Proprietary Colony:
    • James (Duke of York) gave Part of New York to Sir George Carteret & Sir John Berkeley
  • Sir George Carteret named his half territory New Jersey
pennsylvania penn s wood
Pennsylvania“Penn’s Wood”
  • Proprietary Colony:
    • William Penn granted land by Charles II
  • Penn wanted to colony to be a haven for Quakers
  • Officially the “Society of Friends”
  • Founder said they should “Quake at the name of the Lord”
  • Beliefs:

1. Believed in direct personal comm. With God

2. No ministers or hierarchy of Priests

3. No MASS, just a meeting where people stood to talk to the group

4. Believed in full equality for Men and Women

5. Pacifists – refused to fight in wars

  • Persecuted and jailed in England
  • Experimental colony and City
    • Colony of Toleration
    • Philadelphia – “City of Brotherly Love” (Greek)
  • Penn Advertised the colony as Tolerant of Everyone
    • Attracted Amish, Mennonites, Germans, French protestants
  • 1701: Penn allows democracy
    • Established the “Charter of Liberties”
    • By the People, For the People
  • Gave the land to the Quakers
    • The Quakers named the Colony Delaware
  • Gov. Change: Land disputes with Delaware caused King to make New York and New Jersey Royal Colonies
  • Proprietary Colony
    • 8 men named the colony “Carolina” in latin “Carolus” – translated means “Charles”
    • The 8 men ran the colony like a business
      • Tried to steal colonist from other colonies by offering religious freedom or tax breaks
northern carolina
Northern Carolina
  • Developed as a small farm colony
    • Terrain was rough and no natural harbors to export goods
    • Very few slaves imported
    • Colony remains relatively poor
southern carolina
Southern Carolina
  • Founded Charlestown
  • Large estates develop - Plantations
    • Bring in slaves
  • West Indies Farmers moved in – Bringing Indigo, rice, and Slaves
  • 1729: The King bought the colony
    • Divided the colony into South & North Carolina
  • Two Problems:
    • Tensions between Spanish Florida and English South Carolina were always High
  • Solution: Established by James Oglethorpe
    • Create a Buffer state between South Carolina and Florida just in case of Attack
    • Allow debtors in England to move to Georgia
  • George Calvert – Lord Baltimore
    • Catholic
  • Founded a colony around the Chesapeake Bay
  • Colony Attracted Protestants & Catholics – which caused problems
    • 1649: Maryland Assembly passed the Toleration Act
  • Colony Named for Mary