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In vivo imaging

In vivo imaging

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In vivo imaging

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  1. In vivo imaging

  2. NIH:Roadmap for Medical Research ・New Pathway to Discovery ・Research Team of the Future ・Re-engineering the Clinical Research Enterprise FDA:Critical Path Initiative(2004) ・effective application of basic researches to clinical researches ・combination of drug discovery, diagnostic and therapy NIH/NCI:Cancer Imaging Program (CIP) UK Clinical Research Collaboration promotion of clinical research National Biomanufacturing Centre Development of bio-drugs EMIL (European Molecular Imaging Lab.) Network of researchers on cancer research DiMI (Diagnostic Molecular Imaging) Research network of bioimaging

  3. In vivo imaging technologies X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) Positron Emission Tomography(PET) 18F, 11C, 124I, 64Cuetc Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography(SPECT) 201Tl, 67Ga, 99mTcetc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Gd3+ Complex, SPIO Fluorescence imaging (near IR) Luminescence imaging (Bioluminescence) Ultrasound imaging Light scattering imaging

  4. X-ray CT X-ray source and detector are rotated around the subject of examination. During the permeation of irradiated X-ray into the subject, part of the X-ray is absorbed and the attenuated X-ray is detected. This absorption depends on a contents of the subject. Image is created with Fourier transform of this attenuated rate detected in 360°direction

  5. Ⅹ-ray CTcontrast agent Monomer typeDimer type Lipid type Lipiodol (Iodized poppy oil)triglyceride

  6. SPECT Detect g-ray emitted from RI-probe administered in body wothg-camera and its tomographic image is made. Detection of early phase in atherosclerosis, heart diseases or cancers Easy to handle, but the sensitivity and resolution are lower than PET due to the absorption of g-ray in the body.

  7. SPECT contrast agent 99mTechnetium (99mTc)examethadim: (99mTc-HMPAO) For brain functional imaging The absorption depends on the blood flow.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Detection of metabolic level in central nervous system or tumor Half life15O:2min, 13N:10min,11C:20min,18F:110min The collapse of above atoms emits one positron. The positron gets pair annihilation with water molecule and emits two photon (511keV)to opposite direction. Then the two photons are detected with photomultipliers set around the object. If two photons are detected at the same time in opposite direction, radiation source should exist in the line. X-ray CTPET

  9. 18FDG metabolism × 18FDG P Tumor imaging using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Cancer cell 18FDG

  10. O H H Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Detect of magnetic relaxation in water proton ・ Contrast agent using magnetic susceptibility Contrast agent using dipole-interaction >100 nm Gd-DTPA (Diethylenetriamine-N, N, N’, N’, N” -pentaacetic acid) complex Ferric oxide Fe3O4 paramagnetic Superparamagnetic positive contrast negative contrast T1-weighted spin-echo T2-weighted spin-echo T2*-weighted gradient-echo

  11. Decrease of osmotic shock Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) Gd-DOTA Gd-HP-DO3A Gd-DTPA-BMA Gd-DO3A-butrol Gd-DTPA-BMEA

  12. Accumulation in hepatocyte Gd-EOB-DTPA Gd-BOPTA

  13. High sensitivity-type Gd-DTPA pendant polymer Gd-DTPA pendant dendrimer Poly-ion complex type Gd-DTPA Gd-complex adsorbing to albumin

  14. Micelle type:atheroma, cancer Gd-AAZTA-C17 Micell forming Gd-DOTA (Gd fluorine) PAMAM dendrimer Gd-DO3A-diph bind to LDL Gd-DO3A-diph アビジンと結合して巨大複合体 EPR効果でがんに蓄積

  15. ミセル型造影剤:アテローム、がん Gd-AAZTA-C17 Micell forming Gd-DOTA (Gd fluorine) PAMAM dendrimer 4-8 Gd-DO3A-diph Bind to LDL Gd-DO3A-diph

  16. Functionalized Contrast Agents Molecular probe + Sensing unit Imaging unit Functionalized Contras Agents 1: for endothelial injury or disorder using dye molecule 2: for cancer cells using sigma receptor-specific ligand

  17. Ligand-conjugated type Glutamine transporter -binding HT-DOTA-Gd Macrophage targeting Myeloperoxidase binding

  18. Enzyme substrate-type esterase Water soluble: MRI signal on Water insoluble: MRI silent Esterase-responsive system b-galactosidase b-Galactosidase-responsive system

  19. Contrast agent for endothelium damage

  20. Screening of dyes with specific adsorption to endothelium damage Trypan Blue: 10mg/ml Evans Blue: 10mg/ml Congo Red: 10mg/ml Primuline: saturated Thioflavin T: saturated Sirius Red: 10mg/ml Crystal Violet: saturated

  21. Balloon treatment + EB-DTPA-Gd 60 min after the administration Before administration aorta Normal + EB-DTPA-Gd Before administration 60 min after the administration Balloon treatment + Gd-DTPA Left: normal aorta Right: injured aorta Before administration 60 min after the administration

  22. Detection of arteriosclerosis Detection of atheroma Spasm occurs in atheloma