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Mineral Deposition. Mineralization is crystallization process osteoblasts produce collagen fibers spiraled the length of the osteon minerals cover the fibers and harden the matrix ions (calcium and phosphate and from blood plasma) are deposited along the fibers

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mineral deposition
Mineral Deposition
  • Mineralization is crystallization process
    • osteoblasts produce collagen fibers spiraled the length of the osteon
    • minerals cover the fibers and harden the matrix
      • ions (calcium and phosphate and from blood plasma) are deposited along the fibers
      • ion concentration must reach the solubility product for crystal formation to occur
  • Abnormal calcification (ectopic)
    • may occur in lungs, brain, eyes, muscles, tendons or arteries (arteriosclerosis)
mineral resorption from bone
Mineral Resorption from Bone
  • Bone dissolved and minerals released into blood
    • performed by osteoclasts
    • hydrochloric acid (pH 4) dissolves bone minerals
    • enzyme (acid phosphatase) digests the collagen
  • Dental braces reposition teeth and remodel bone
    • create more pressure on one side of the tooth
    • stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone
    • decreased pressure stimulates osteoblasts
calcium and phosphate
Calcium and Phosphate
  • Phosphate is component of DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids, and pH buffers
  • Calcium needed in neurons, muscle contraction, blood clotting and exocytosis
ion imbalances
Ion Imbalances
  • Changes in phosphate levels = little effect
  • Changes in calcium can be serious
    • hypocalcemia is deficiency of blood calcium
      • causes excitability of nervous system if too low
        • muscle spasms, tremors or tetany ~6 mg/dL
        • laryngospasm and suffocation ~4 mg/dL
      • with less calcium, sodium channels open more easily, sodium enters cell and excites neuron
    • hypercalcemia is excess of blood calcium
      • binding to cell surface makes sodium channels less likely to open, depressing nervous system
        • muscle weakness and sluggish reflexes, cardiac arrest ~12 mg/dL
  • Calcium phosphate homeostasis depends on calcitriol, calcitonin and PTH regulation
carpopedal spasm
Carpopedal Spasm
  • Hypocalcemia demonstrated by muscle spasm of hands and feet.
hormonal control of calcium balance
Hormonal Control of Calcium Balance
  • Calcitriol, PTH and calcitonin maintain normal blood calcium concentration.
calcitriol activated vitamin d
Calcitriol (Activated Vitamin D)
  • Produced by the following process
    • UV radiation and epidermal keratinocytes convert precursor to vitamin D3
    • liver converts it to calcidiol
    • kidney converts that to calcitriol (vitamin D)
  • Calcitriol behaves as a hormone that raises blood calcium concentration
    • increases intestinal absorption and absorption from the skeleton
    • increases stem cell differentiation into osteoclasts
    • promotes urinary reabsorption of calcium ions
  • Abnormal softness (rickets) in children and (osteomalacia) in adults without vitamin D
calcitonin
Calcitonin
  • Secreted (C cells of thyroid gland) when calcium concentration rises too high
  • Functions
    • reduces osteoclast activity as much as 70%
    • increases the number and activity of osteoblasts
  • Reduces bone loss in osteoporosis
parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid Hormone
  • Glands on posterior surface of thyroid
  • Released with low calcium blood levels
  • Function = raise calcium blood level
    • causes osteoblasts to release osteoclast-stimulating factor increasing osteoclast population
    • promotes calcium resorption by the kidneys
    • promotes calcitriol synthesis in the kidneys
    • inhibits collagen synthesis and bone deposition by osteoblasts
other factors affecting bone
Other Factors Affecting Bone
  • Hormones, vitamins and growth factors
  • Growth rapid at puberty
    • hormones stimulate osteogenic cells, chondrocytes and matrix deposition in growth plate
    • girls grow faster than boys and reach full height earlier (estrogen stronger effect)
    • males grow for a longer time and taller
  • Growth stops (epiphyseal plate “closes”)
    • teenage use of anabolic steroids = premature closure of growth plate and short adult stature