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War in the Waikato Grey's Peace Policy Grey set up runanga or new institutions to give the chiefs local administrative powers. When the Maori chiefs did not use it to sell land it lost its appeal.
War in the Waikato • Grey also tried flattery and gifts, his 'flour and sugar' policy , but pensions and gifts could not solve the problems of a declining population, social disruption and poverty .
War in the Waikato War Policy • At the same time Grey prepared for war. • He was uneasy about the formidable, independent, central tribes. The limited support the King Movement had given to the Taranaki war had demonstrated its military muscle.
War in the Waikato • He built roads into the Waikato and planned for gunboats on the Waikato River. He kept the troops from the Taranaki War, supplementing them with an extra 3000 men.
War in the Waikato Grey and Cameron made careful preparations for the invasion of the Waikato. • Armed and armored steamers were acquired for the Waikato river. • The Great South Road and protective forts were built. • A supply organization was built. • A military telegraph linked Auckland to the front. • Three extra regiments and other reinforcements were 'prised' out of the Imperial Government
War in the Waikato • Cameron's revelation to London that Grey's allegedly imminent 'Maori Rebellion' had not persuaded the settlers to spend any money on their own defense came too late to stop the flow of imperial resources.
War in the Waikato • Numbers of imperial troops rose from about 8000 in July 1861 to about 12000 in May 1864. About 3/4's of these troops were available for the Waikato war.
War in the Waikato • The Colonial Government contributed a few hundred colonial regulars the Forest Rangers and the Colonial Defence Force cavalry and a substantial number of militia and volunteers from Auckland. These were gradually replaced by Military settlers - The Waikato militia - mainly men from the Australian and Otago goldfields on the promise of confiscated Maori land.
War in the Waikato Events Leading to War • Grey decided the Waitara should be returned to its Maori owners. But first he occupied the Tataraimaka block which had been seized by Taranaki tribes. The angry Atiawa unsuccessfully ambushed government troops at Oakura. The Waitara was officially returned in May 1863.
War in the Waikato • Grey blamed the Kingites for the Oakura ambush. He also claimed they had a plot to invade Auckland. • On 11 July 1863 he ordered the invasion of Waikato.
War in the Waikato Causes of Conflict in the Waikato • The long-term cause was the basic antagonism of Maori and Pakeha. The settlers and even the missionaries welcomed war. They wanted to subjugate Maori nationalism. Their argument was that the 'rule of Pakeha law should prevail'.
War in the Waikato • Grey, like Gore Browne, wanted to establish British authority more effectively. Grey saw the Oakura ambush as a rejection of British authority.
War in the Waikato • The settlers and financiers coveted the rich lands of the Waikato.
War in the Waikato The Opposing Armies • The British Force:In1864 Grey had 14000 men. Of these, 4000 were colonial forces, 9000 were Imperial soldiers, a few hundred were pro-British Queenites (Arawa). • Total mobilisation is estimated at 18 000 men. They were commanded by Lieutenant- General Cameron. Itwas one of the best prepared and organised British campaigns.
War in the Waikato • The Maori Force: With limited written evidence estimates of their strength have varied greatly. Cycles of concentration and dispersal were characteristic. On three occasions forces of 1000-2000 men assembled for up to three months. Total Maori mobilisation is estimated as 4000 warriors. • This would only have been possible with a high degree of co-operative action.
War in the Waikato • Leaders were Rewi Maniapoto of Ngati Maniapoto, Wiremu Tamehana of Ngatihaua, and Tikaokao of Ngati Maniapoto.
War in the Waikato Proclamation of War • On 9 July 1864, Grey issued a Proclamation calling on all Maori living north of the Mangatawhiri river to take the oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria or retire beyond the river. • Those who resisted were liable to have land confiscated. This did not reach the Waikato until after Cameron's troops had crossed the Mangatawhiri.
War in the Waikato INVASION • The invasion commenced with a small victory at Koheroa in July 1863. But the advance was then held up for 3 months by a Defensive line of modern pa at Meremere. when Cameron finally assembled enough men to protect his communications and take Meremere the Maori simply abandoned it. • From this point on though Cameron's main advantage began to make itself felt a large and constant flow of resources.
War in the Waikato The Fighting • The Maori force used guerilla tactics, killing settlers in outlying districts, and attacking communication lines. • Cameron had to tie up three-quarters of his men in protecting communications. • The Maori aim was to block Pakeha progress into the Waikato.
War in the Waikato The Sequence of Fighting • Meremere: A Maori force of about 1500 men constructed a pa and held up the British advance for 14 weeks, then dispersed.
War in the Waikato • Rangiriri:Cameron was able to mount a continuous offensive and he caught the Maori army only 1/2 assembled at Rangiriri, the second Maori defensive line, on 20 November. Cameron's army was able to take a lightly held part of the fortifications but seven assaults against the rest failed with 13 casualties. The Maori partly evacuated, although 18 were taken prisoner. • Its capture opened up the Waikato.
War in the Waikato • Ngaruawahia: was occupied by the British on 9 December. Cameron offered terms which were rejected. however Ngaruawahia held no military or economic significance, and Maori did not submit. instead they fortified their third and greatest Waikato line - Paterangi.
War in the Waikato • Paterangi: was by-passed by a brilliant British maneuver. This allowed Cameron into the heartland of the Waikato. Rangiaowhai was burned and sacked.
War in the Waikato • Paterangi was an awesome moden pa with extensive trench systems; Cameron realised storming it was impossible so he outflanked it in February 1864.
This allowed Cameron into the heartland of the Waikato. He marched 1200 troops around it at night and sacked the nearby Maori town of Rangiaowhia He then withdrew to await the Maori response. Tamihana knew the superiority of British troops in regular warfare and so withdrew from the Paterangi line.
War in the Waikato • The Paterangi operations gave the British one of the three main agricultural heartlands of the Waikato tribes. They also represented the first permanently damaging defeat suffered by Maori in the New Zealand Wars.
War in the Waikato • Orakau: Rewi Maniapoto, forced into a defensive stand on a un- suitable site, resisted five assaults before attempting an audacious breakout.
War in the Waikato End of Waikato War • Cameron decided against advancing further into the rugged hill country of the Ngati Maniapoto. War came to an indecisive end in 1864.
War in the Waikato • The Waikato Wars had no satisfying climax so two were invented One was Orakau which was said to have crushed the King Movement in fact further modern pa defended the remaining economic heartland's of Waikato they were never taken and became the new aukati between what became known as the King Country and the Pakeha sphere. The second occurred at Tauranga, where the Waikato fighting spilled over in 1864