Starter (October 19) Read “Understanding the Main Idea” on page 270 of your textbook. This will introduce you the new chapter. Answer the “Themes” questions in complete sentences—we will begin by discussing your answers.
A New Civilization in Western Europe Chapter 11 Test/Vocab Due on Wed. October 26
Germanic Invaders • When the Roman Empire fell, Germanic peoples swept across Europe and into North Africa. • Initially, the kings of the new Germanic kingdoms kept many of the traditions and laws of the old Roman Empire. • However, over time new groups such as the Franks, Angles, and Saxons came into present-day Britain with Germanic customs.
German Origins • Not much is known about the origins of the Germans. • They did not develop their own written language until after their contact with Romans. • Archaeologists have found evidence indicating that the Franks and Saxons moved west reaching the Rhine River around 250 BC. • The Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and Vandals appeared around the 200s in northeastern Europe.
Family and Cultural Values • The Germans who invaded northern Europe were migratory, but they were not nomadic. (They often stayed in an area for generations.) • They were hunters, fishers, and herders. • They lived in small huts in small villages. • War was often a way of life between the villages. • Germans lived in kinship groups. (Family, clan, tribe) • Germans were patriarchal. • Men often had several wives. • Women were primarily responsible for raising the children and other domestic duties. However, women did have a voice in tribal affairs.
War and Social Structure • Germans were organized for fighting even after they settled down. • In times of crisis, leaders were chosen from the most powerful families and warriors swore an oath of personal loyalty and obedience. In return for a warrior’s obedience, the chief of the tribe promised food, water, and a share of the plunder. • Once these tribes moved into the Roman Empire, many of the chiefs became kings and distributed the land to their warriors. • These “landed warriors” became nobles • Freemen owned land and had political rights • Several groups of semi-free peasants emerged who were typically bound to the land they worked • Conquered peoples sometimes became slaves—some Germans sold their slaves to pay off debts
Germanic Law • A hierarchical society emerged. • German tribes developed their own laws and consequences—there was not a united state. • Injured parties often performed the punishment. • To prevent blood feuds, they often took “blood money.” • German conquerors did not impose their laws on the people they conquered. • Eventually, this led to some blending of Roman and German law.
The Rise of Latin Christendom • German acceptance of Roman influence was made possible by the Catholic Church. • Hierarchy in the church: • Every district was headed by a bishop • Provinces were headed by an archbishop • The bishop of Rome was the pope (“father”) and was considered the head of the church. • When the Roman imperial government failed, the church stepped in. • Overtime, the church held secular and spiritual authority.
The Church—Guided Reading ?s • How did the influence of the church help people cope with the instability during and after the fall of Rome? • What is monasticism and when did it spread to the Western Empire? • Who is Saint Patrick? • Identify Saint Benedict of Nursia. • Explain Benedictine Rule and its importance to the Catholic Church.
“Bottom Line” of Latin Christendom As monastics spread Christianity, the Roman Catholic Church became the primary unifying force that gave rise to Latin Christendom.” Latin Christendom emerged in the 600s as the traditions of the Romans, Christians, and Germans began to merge.
Exit Ticket—3/2/1 3. Provide three adjectives describing the Germanic tribes we discussed today. 2. Provide two vocab terms from Chapter 11 and their definitions. 1. Provide one question about something you did not fully understand for us to review tomorrow.
Starter (October 20) Begin notes where yesterday left off.
The Franks • Merovingians • King Clovis was the first of the dynasty. • He converted to Catholic Christianity in 496. • He hoped to use church administration to run his large empire. • Clovis’ empire did not last long in part because of his allegiance to Germanic custom. • On his deathbed in 511, he divided the kingdom among his 4 sons. • Civil wars, the growing power of the Frankish nobility, and Germanic invasions led to the end of power. • Merovingian kings became figure heads without real power. • History.com--King Clovis of Gaul
Carolingians • In 732, Charles Martel defeated Muslim raiders near the French town of Tours—many called in a Christian victory. • History.com--Charles Martel and the Moors • The pope asked for his assistance against the Lombards in Italy, but he refused. • Martel’s son, Pepin, later helped assisted the pope only in exchange for the deposal of the last Merovingian king. • In 751, Pepin was named “king by the grace of God” by the pope. • Pepin began the Carolingian Dynasty. • Donation of Pepin: Pepin captured lands in Central Italy from the Lombards and turned it over to the pope in 754 and 756; these lands created the Papal States. • The donation made the church involved in secular affairs AND strengthened the ties between the Carolingian kings and the Catholic Church.
Renewed Invasions Foldable Create a foldable (follow directions of Ms. Jones) in which you will display information on the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims as invaders. 30 minutes
Starter (October 21) Copy the definition and provide the term being defined. • Period of European history from 500 to 1500 • Germanic people who held power in the Roman Province called Gaul; eventually became the French • Religious community of people devoting their lives to worship and prayer • Dynasty of Frankish rulers lasing from 751 to 987 • Powerful Frankish ruler who build a huge empire • Concerned with worldly things; non-religious WORD BANK Carolingian Dynasty Monastery Franks Middle Ages Secular Charlemagne
READ and Take Notes Read the biography of Charlemagne (p 277—3 paragraphs) and bullet notes from your reading. 10 minutes History.com--Charlemagne
The Feudal Society ?s (Put directly in notes—be sure you label—answer in COMPLETE sentences) • Compare and contrast the difference between foot soldiers and knights. • Explain the relationship between fiefs, lords, and vassals. • Outline the oath of loyalty ceremony that took place between lords and vassals.
The Manorial System • Feudalism was primarily for politics and the military—the primary economic system used in the Middle Ages was the manorial system. • Nobles gave peasants the right to work on the land (manors) in return for payment. • A manor usually consisted of a house/castle, pastures, fields, woods, and a village. • The lord kept 1/3 of the manor for themselves—the domain. • Peasants farmed the remained 2/3. • The lord was given part of the crops. Peasants paid feudal taxes and performed maintenance jobs on the manor.
Peasant Life in the Middle Ages • Most peasants were serf—they “belonged to the land.” • Serfs are not slaves because they cannot be sold. • Peasants typically lived in single-room wooden houses with dirt floors. Their animals shared their homes with them. • Foods were simple—coarse brown bread, cheese, vegetables, and occasionally pork or bacon. • Peasant families worked as a unit. • Life expectancy was short due to hunger, disease, accidents, and chronic warfare.
Life of the Nobility in the Middle Ages • Nobles did not necessarily live luxurious or easy lives. • Nobles were responsible for protecting the lord’s domain and enforcing his authority. • Females in the noble’s household supervised the running of the house such as helping prepare equipment for battle and governing the estate when the men were away. • They also cared for the sick or injured, provided religious instruction, and cared for children.
The Church • Religious ceremonies marked milestones from birth to death. • Frequent religious festivals allowed for socialization and celebrations. • Nobles often donated to monasteries to safeguard their souls. • Problems arose as the church and feudal system drew closer together. • By the 900s, many people were calling for reform. • Duke William of Aquitaine founded an abbey and required that the monastery answer only to the pope. • The monks from Duke William’s monastery wanted to apply this discipline to all monasteries—they encouraged the development of sacraments. • Sacraments: ceremonies of the church through which Christians believe one can attain salvation
7 Recognized Sacraments (as of the 1100s) • Baptism—admission to the Christian community • Holy Eucharist or Holy Communion—bread and wine ceremony used to symbolize the body and blood of Christ • Confirmation—admission to the church membership • Penance—acts showing repentance for sin • Taking of Holy Orders—admission to the priesthood • Matrimony—marriage • Extreme unction—anointing the sick and dying