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Holistic S&T Inputs for Objective Drought Monitoring: Role of National Informatics Centre . Agricultural Informatics Division National Informatics Centre Department of Information Technology Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Government of India) New Delhi.

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Holistic S&T Inputs for Objective Drought Monitoring: Role of National Informatics Centre


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    1. Holistic S&T Inputs for Objective Drought Monitoring: Role of National Informatics Centre Agricultural Informatics Division National Informatics Centre Department of Information Technology Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Government of India) New Delhi Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    2. National Informatics Centre – Meeting the People Needs • An institution with 30 Years of Experience in Catalising “Informatics for Development” in India; • Informatics & Productivity (Hypothesis: Trustworthy Networking and Information System reinforces commitment on productivity); • NICNET gateway for Internet/Intranet Access and NICNET Centres for Resources Sharing In Central, State and District Administrations; • State Government Informatics Development Programme; • District Informatics Development Programme; • Mission Mode Projects in collaboration with Central and State Government Departments; Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    3. Agriculture is the mainstay of sizeable percentage of Indian people but natural disaster like drought, shakes the backbone of theirs, destroying acres of cropped land and pushing the Economy to the crippled condition. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    4. Farmer – An institution “Save the Farmer, Save the Farming” Rural India’s Stakeholding Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    5. ICT Diffusion for Sustainable Grassroots Development & Assisting India’s 650 Million to augment their earning power Rural India’s Stakeholding Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    6. Agricultural Informatics & Communication requires Inter-Sectoral Approach Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    7. Models of e-Government (i.e. digital government) Good Governance and institutions are indispensable for sound agricultural and rural development in developing countries. Models of e-Government (i.e. digital government) are continuously evolving and improvising to harness the potential offered by the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and deal with new realities in the area of governance, through out the World. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    8. Generic Models of e-Government (www. Digital governance.org)are relevant while discussing “design of an e-Government for Poor” • Broadcasting / Wider-Dissemination Model • Critical Flow Model • Comparative Analysis Model • e-Advocacy/ Lobbying and Pressure Group Model • Integrated Services Model Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    9. “Geometry of Information Flows” Studying and influencing the “Geometry of Information Flows” facilitates direct benefits rather than trickle-down benefits for the disadvantaged community (i.e. the Resource-Poor farmer) An essential step towards identifying the missing element Who are our Target groups that we want to reach out to, through ICT for Development projects? What are the key information needs of the disadvantaged community? ·   What are the existing channels by which information reaches to the disadvantaged community? ·         What is the weakest link in the chain of information flows: from source to the disadvantaged community? Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    10. Digital Development in Rural areas : A Journey started in 1985 with the establishment of NICNET in districts of India- ISDA 95 : Informatics for Sustainable Agricultural Development • Existing Digital Initiative projects for Agricultural development: • AGRISNET • AgRIS (Agricultural Resources Information System) (http://agris.nic.in) • DACNET (http://dacnet.nic.in) • AGMARKNET (http://agmarknet.nic.in) • National Horticulture Mission • Agricultural Census Database • Minor Irrigation Census • DAIC Scheme (Development of Agricultural Informatics & Communication) • SeedNet (http://SeedNet.gov.in) • Agricultural Datawarehosuing and Datamining Project • National Portal on Rainfed Farming • National Portal on Farm Mechanisation (http://dacnet.nic.in/farmmechanisation) • National Portal on 300+ Agricultural Commodities • DISNIC (http://disnic.nic.in) : A programme for ICT in microlevel planning. • Agricultural Research Information System Network (ARISNET) • Land Records Computerized Database – A Joint Venture of NIC, DLR, and State Governments; • eGranthalaya : Moving towards Rural Digital Library for “Literacy Mission & Poverty Alleviation” Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    11. Agricultural Resources Information System – A Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    12. Water Soil Climate Resources Resources Resources Data Data Data Infrastructure Data Capital Resources Socio-economic DSS, Metadata and and Statistical Land Records Open GIS Data Data Remote Sensing Data Environment Data Fisheries Plant Animal Resources Resources Resources Figure2: Components of Agricultural Resources Information Systems Agricultural Resources Information System – A Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    13. Fusion of Technology Framework Scanning Remote Sensing Aerial Photographs Global Positioning System Data Acquisition SOI Topographic Map Data Storage & Retrieval Geographic Information System Spatial & Non-Spatial Database DSS & AnalyticalModeling Data Authentication Smart Card Citizen Services Thematic maps Cadastral Maps Information Kiosk Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    14. Agricultural Resources Information System – A Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods • Decision Technology System (DTS), built upon the Agricultural Resources Information System, is what required for undertaking: • Crop Suitability based on factor endowment • Land Suitability Assessment; • Land Productivity Assessment; • Population Supporting Capacity; • Land Evaluation and Land Use Planning; • Land Degradation Risk Assessment; • Quantification of Land Resources Constraints; • Land Management; • Agro-ecological Characterization for Research and Planning; Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    15. Agricultural Resources Information System – A Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods ·   Agricultural Technology Transfer; ·   Agricultural Inputs Recommendations; ·   Farming Systems Analysis and Development; ·   Environmental Impact Assessment; ·   Monitoring of Land Resources Development. ·   Livestock (cattle, buffalo, goat, & sheep) Farming Systems ·   Water allocation in an irrigation system ·   Fodder Resources Development ·   Water Bodies (Basin) Planning Systems using Watershed and Agro-Eco Region Planning Concepts Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    16. Pilot Demonstration Projects Typologies • A Tribal District • A Hill District • A Dry-land District • A Socially backward District • A Green Revolution District • A Coastal district • A Dairy-farming District • A district dominated by cash crop district • A district in a mining/ industrial belt • A district dominated by forest economy • A district dominated by one or two urban centers • A district in arid-zone • A district, which is flood prone but having vast wasteland that could be used to generate forest cover. · Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    17. DISNIC Programme Revisited DISNIC : A District level Government Informatics Programme (1987) “DISNIC-PLAN : An Informatics Blueprint that covers Villages” Sustainability of Natural Resources Endowment, Full Employment, Empowerment of Women, Production System Planning ICT for Social development ICT for Economic Development Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    18. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    19. DISNIC-PLAN Project Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    20. NIC envisages to establish • Centre for Agricultural Informatics and Communication • DISNIC Programme (http://disnic.gov.in) • AgRIS (http://agris.nic.in) • DACNET (http://dacnet.nic.in) • DAIC (Development of Agricultural Informatics & Communication) Scheme • AGMARKNET (http://agmarknet.nic.in) • SEEDNET (http://seednet.nic.in) • Digital SME : SCM & CRM & Value Chain • AGRISNET • ARISNET • Land Records Computerized Database • e-Cooperative & CoopNet • e-Granthalaya • e-Governance Standards (http://egovstandards.gov.in) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    21. Agricultural Drought “Drought is a condition of moisture deficit sufficient to have an adverse effect on vegetation, animals and man over a sizable area.” Country’s experience is that- ·Drought can be prevented ·Drought can be mitigated. ·Hardships can be minimized. ·Sufferings can be reduced.  If we work together at all levels, Drought is not a Disaster, but a Management Issue.   WE: Constitutes WHOM? When drought begins, the agricultural sector is usually the first to be affected because of its heavy dependence on stored soil water. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    22. Agricultural drought occurs when the rainfall and soil moisture are inadequate to meet the water requirements of crops. • Meteorological drought leads to a depletion of soil moisture and this almost always has an impact on crop production. • Agricultural drought is typically seen after meteorological drought (when rainfall decreases) but before a hydrological drought (when the water level in rivers, lakes and reservoirs decreases). Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    23. (Source: http://www.drought.unl.edu/whatis/concept.htm) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    24. Centre for Continuous and Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring Mainstreaming ICT • Database System • Spatial System • Non-Spatial System • Decision Support System (DSS) • Workflow Systems • Web Services Applications • ICT Infrastructure at grassroots level • IntraNet solutions • Networking of Stakeholders • Capacity Building • e-Governance Standards Adoption • Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    25. Database System : Spatial Component Watershed based Development • General data • Watershed Name and its Code (given by Soil and Land Use Survey of India) and NSDI Code; • Location and Boundaries, • Size & shape, • Elevation & slope, • Presence of streams, tributaries, etc. • Physical data • Geological data, • Soil data (soil texture, depth, soil series, physical and chemical properties), • Geomorphologic data (drainage patterns, stream density and order, channel profiles etc.) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    26. Database System : Spatial Component Watershed based Development • Climate, Hydrology and Water Resource data • precipitation, • evaporation, • wind, • temperature, • humidity, • rainfall, • stream flow, • surface water, • ground water, • water quality, etc. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    27. Database System : Spatial Component Watershed based Development • Land Use, Land Cover, Land Capability data • land use by classes, • ownership, • land capability, etc. • Cropping pattern • Irrigation requirements • Agricultural inputs availability • Erosion data • kinds of erosion, extent, causes, etc Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    28. Database System : Spatial Component Watershed based Development • Maps for developing DSS • base map showing boundary, sub-watersheds, villages, roads, etc; • topographic map showing contours, elevations, land forms, streams, etc; • soil map showing soil types and boundaries, depths and soil limiting properties • climatic map showing mainly rainfall, but statistics may include temperature, evapo-transpiration, etc.; • geology map showing rock types, structures, displacement, morphology, etc.; • slope map showing different slope classes or exposures/aspects; • present land use map showing major land uses and land cover types; • land capability or land suitability map showing different land capability classes; or land suitability classes; • land-use adjustment map showing land being over-used or under-used and adjustment needs; • erosion or sediment source maps showing sites of various types of erosion and sediment potential areas; • hydro-meteorological network map showing the location of climatic and stream gauging stations; • water resource map showing surface and underground sources. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    29. Database System : Non-Spatial Component Watershed based Development • Infrastructure data • Transportation networks, • Housing, • Public services, • Survey of agro-industry, etc. • Socio-economic/Demographic data • Population, • Rate of growth, • Composition, • Migration, • Employment, and • Other demographic factors affecting rate of resource use, etc. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    30. Database System : Non-Spatial Component Watershed based Development • Minimum needs of the farmers • more roads, • domestic/ irrigation water, • housing, • marketing arrangements, • recreation facilities. • Awareness of farmers about the causes and • problems facing the watershed Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    31. Database System : Non-Spatial Component Watershed based Development • Economic data • farms production, • farms income, • farm models, • farming systems, • land use patterns, • employment, • labour demand and supply, • rural enterprises, • marketing, etc. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    32. Decision Support System (DSS) : A partial list • Decision Technology System (DTS) to be built under AgRIS Project; • Early Warning System (Alerts/ Forecasts based on indicators like market arrivals, level of inventory in rural Godowns, climatic factors etc.); • Advisory on Water: (Selection of appropriate use of existing water potential, Scheduling of Water availability, etc.); • Animal Heath Care (Recommendations on Mix of Fodders & Feeds for balanced diet during drought); • Crop security, food security, nutrition security, health security and livestock security; • ………. (a) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    33. Development of Workflow systems : A Partial List • Input Supply Chain (Requirement from district, Allocation from state, distribution from Input Stock Centres/Godowns); • Public Distribution System (Requirement, Allocation and Distribution); • Relief Operations Plan (Centre/State/ District/Block) • Agricultural Extension Services • District Administration workflow system • ………. (a) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    34. Development of Web Services in regional languages: A Partial List • Weather and Drought Forecasting; • Area Specific Advice on farm practices to farmers based on weather conditions; • State Government requesting relief assistance; • Drought Relief Programmes announced by the Government; • Status of Drought Relief Operations at district/block/village level; • …….. (a) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    35. Mainstreaming ICT : ICT Infrastructure at grassroots level • ICT Infrastructure and Network Connectivity at district and sub-district level • SWAN Nodes • NICNET Nodes (600+) of NIC • Common Services Centres (CSCs) of DIT • Community Information Centres (CICs) of DIT • Village Knowledge Centres of DST • Village Resources Centres of DOS • National Agricultural Research System (NARS) Nodes (ICAR – 89, SAUs – 45, Agricultural Colleges – 300, Agricultural Research Stations – 800, KVKs – 500) • Public Libraries (District and Village) - 57000 • College Libraries (Rural Colleges) – 12000 • Low Cost Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) at Block level and networked to SWAN/NICNET Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    36. Low Cost Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) Automatic Weather Stations having Rain Temperature Winds Rainfall Soil TemperaturesHumidity Sensors at Block level can help continuous monitoring of the drought. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    37. Improved Scenario • Detailed records of observations for further analysis at local and regional level; • Can help in early detection of drought tendency by analysing prevailing high temperature and winds for longer periods; • Development of Expert systems for Decision Makers. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    38. Mainstreaming ICT : Utilization of State owned e-Governance Delivery Systems • NEMMADI Kendras of Karnataka • e-SEVA of Andhra Pradesh • KAMADHENU of Rajasthan • e-JAN SAMPARK of Chandigarh • SUVIDHA of Punjab • RASI MAIYAMS of Tamilnadu • INFOGRAM of Goa • FRIENDS of Kerala • GYAN DARSHAN of Gujarat • LOKVANI of Uttar Pradesh • JAN MITRA of Himachal Pradesh • JAIKISAN of Uttrakhand • e-Gram Suvidha of Madhya Pradesh • e-SUVIDHA of CICs in North Eastern States • NAIDISHA of Haryana • SUCHNA MITRA Kendra of Chhattisgarh • …… Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    39. Mainstreaming ICT : Capacity Building through HRD Process • Awareness for Drought Preparedness and Control Operations • Extension and advisory services • ICT usage for access of information, Workflow and Advisories • Business Process Re-engineering • Expert Systems/ Datamining/ Knowledge Systems • Internet/Web Technology • GIS & RS Technology • Database Technology • Office Productivity Tools • e-Office (e-Form, e-Document, Workflow, Web services etc) • (Same methodology adopted for the DACNET Project) Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    40. e-Governance Standards Working Groups to facilitate implementation of National eGovernance Programme (NeGP) • Enterprise Architecture • Government Process Re-engineering • Network Security • Information Security • Meta Data & Data Description • Localization & Language Computing • Legal Enablement of ICT Systems • Documentation & Quality Control Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    41. Enterprise Architecture Framework for Agriculture Drought Monitoring System Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    42. Government Process Re-engineering • Stakeholders • Types of customers and other stakeholders • Relationships of stakeholders to the enterprise • Exchanges between stakeholders and the enterprise form the “inputs -to” and “outputs-from” Government processes • As-is Government processes • Target Government processes • Performance measures for Government processes • Cross-reference of Government processes to the objectives they support (From EA’s perspective relationship among architecture artefacts is the key to generate analysis or actionable architecture) • Review relationship of the organizational units to the processes they carry out Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    43. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System • Institutionalization of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Systems to improve Agricultural Drought Management (AgDM): • To provide a regular flow of information on the performance of government policies, programs and activities; • To provide invaluable support for policy-making, budget decision-making, ongoing management of government activities; • To enable stakeholders to evaluate their actions in a critical way and address the challenges identified; • To strengthen accountability relationships; • To identify the 'leakage' of government funds using public expenditure tracking surveys (PETS). • ·How to build an M&E System to support better government? Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    44. To conclude, • The idea of “establishing of a Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring” is laudable; • Lessons may be learnt from “National Centre for Crop Forecasting”, Krishi Bhavan; • Leverage of ongoing Programmes/Projects of Agricultural Informatics & Communication: • AgRIS • DISNIC-PLAN • DAIC • AGMARKNET • SEEDNET • DACNET • AGRISNET • NHM • Agricultural Census & Input Survey Computerisation programme • Minor Irrigation Census Computerisation Programme • If demanded, NIC can roll out for the proposed Centre for Continuous and Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring, in collaboration with DAC. Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    45. Madaswamy Moni Deputy Director General National Informatics Centre Department of Information Technology Government of India eMail: moni@nic.in Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"

    46. Thank You for your kind attention Feasibility of setting up a "Centre for Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring"