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Entomology for Master Gardeners. David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc”. The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH. © January, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved. What is Entomology?. The study of insects (and their near relatives). What are insects

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slide1

Entomology

for Master Gardeners

David J. Shetlar, Ph.D.

The “BugDoc”

The Ohio State University,

OARDC & OSU Extension

Columbus, OH

© January, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved

slide2

What is Entomology?

The study of insects

(and their near relatives).

What are insects

(and near relatives)?

Insects and their relatives are

ARTHROPODS.

slide3

Review of Zoological Nomenclature

(classifying & naming)

Taxonomic Categories

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Genus & species

slide4

Review of Zoological Nomenclature

Taxonomic Categories

Kingdom - Animalae

Phylum - Arthropoda

Class - Hexapoda (=Insecta)

Order - Coleoptera

Family - Scarabaeidae

Genus - Popillia

Genus & species -

Popillia japonicaNewman

slide5

What are some other Animal Phyla?

  • Protozoa - single-celled animals.
  • Platyhelminthes - flatworms, tapeworms
  • Nematoda - roundworms
  • Mollusca - clams, snails & slugs, squids
  • Echinodermata - starfish, sea urchins
  • Annelida - segmented worms (earthworms)
  • Chordata - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
slide8

Phylum Nematoda –

Roundworms

(>15,000 species, all trophic areas)

slide9

Phylum Annelida –

Segmented Worms

(9,000 species, all trophic areas)

slide10

Phylum Mollusca –

Snails/Slugs, Clams, Cephalopods

(50,000 species, aquatic and terrestrial)

slide11

Phylum Chordata –

Urocordata, Cephalocordata, Vertebrata

(70,000 species)

slide12

Characteristics of the Phylum

Arthropoda

  • The segmented bodies are arranged into regions: e.g., head, thorax, abdomen in insects; cephalothorax and abdomen in arachnids and some crustaceans; head and trunk in millipedes and centipedes.
  • The have paired appendages.
  • They posses a chitinous exoskeletion that must be shed during growth.
  • They have bilateral symmetry.
  • The nervous system is ventral (belly) and the circulatory system is open and dorsal (back).
slide13

Arthropod Groups (taxa)

The arthropods are divided into two large groups that exist today:

The Chelicerates

and

The Mandibulates

slide14

Chelicerate Arthropod Characters:

  • Pincher-like mouthparts - chelicerae - and pedipalps
  • NO antennae
  • Two body regions, usually - cephalothorax & abdomen
  • Four pairs of legs
  • Horseshoe crabs and arachnids are only living groups
slide15

Mandibulate Arthropod Characters:

  • Mouthparts are mandibles - normally chewing sideways
  • One or two pairs of antennae
  • Various body region arrangements - cephalothorax & abdomen / head & trunk / head, thorax & abdomen
  • Variable leg numbers
  • Insects, crustaceans & myriapods
slide16

Classes of Arthropods:

Chelicerates –

Class Xiphosura – horseshoe crabs

Class Arachnica – arachnids

Mandibulates –

Class Crustacea – crustaceans

Class Diplopoda – millipedes

Class Chilopoda – centipedes

Class Symphyla – garden centipedes

Class Hexapoda – insects

slide17

Orders of Arachnids

  • Scorpiones - scorpions
  • Pseudoscorpiones - false scorpions
  • Opiliones - daddy-long-legs or harvestmen
  • Acari - mites & ticks
  • Araneae - spiders
slide18

Pseudoscorpion

Tick

(a mite)

Scorpion

Wolf

Spider

Daddy-long-legs

slide21

Mite and Tick Body Regions

pedipalps &

chelicerae

cephalothorax

abdomen

slide22

American dog tick male

Blacklegged (deer) tick female

slide24

Clover mites

Twospotted spider mites

Predatory mite

slide26

Spider Anatomy

pedipalp

chelicera (fang)

cephalothorax

narrow waist

abdomen

slide27

Abdomen

Cephalothorax

Chelicera (fang)

Pedipalp

Jumping Spider

slide28

Wolf spider with egg case

Spitting spider

Orbweaving spider

Tarantula

slide29

Black widow with egg case

Brown recluse

(fiddleback)

slide30

Classes of Myriapods

(many legged arthropods)

(all have one pair of antennae, a head region, and trunk with many pairs of legs, use trachea)

  • Diplopoda - millipedes
  • Chilopoda - centipedes
  • Symphyla - garden centipedes
slide31

Myriapods

[one pair of antennae, head & trunk regions, trunk with many pairs of legs]

Millipede (Diplopoda)

Two pair of legs per visible segment, attached under body.

Centipede (Chilopoda)

Pair of fangs under head, one pair legs per visible segment - attached to side of body.

Symphylan (Symphyla)

[garden centipede]

No fangs, no eyes, legs attached to side of body.

slide32

Millipede (Diplopoda)

Centipede (Chilopoda)

Garden centipede (Symphyla)

slide33

Classes of Crustacea

(mostly marine, fresh water, a few terrestrial)

(all have two pair of antennae, five or more pairs of legs, segmented abdominal appendages, head & trunk or cephalothorax & abdomen body arrangement, have gills)

  • Isopoda - sowbugs or pillbugs
  • Amphipoda - sand fleas, amphipods
  • Cirripedia - barnicles
  • Decapoda - crabs, lobster, shrimp
  • several other minor orders
slide35

Sowbugs (Isopoda),

terrestrial crustaceans

slide36

Class Hexapoda

(the insects)

  • Three body regions – head, thorax, abdomen
  • Thorax with three pairs of legs; normally two pairs of wings in adult stage
  • Head with one pair of antennae
  • Respiration by trachea
  • Terrestrial & fresh water inhabitants
slide38

Lubber Grasshopper Head

antenna

compound eye

ocelli

frons

mandible

clypeus

maxilla

labium

labrum

slide39

Lubber Grasshopper Thorax

pronotum

mesopleuron

spiracle

metapleuron

coxa

femur

tibia

trochanter

tarsus

slide40

Lubber Grasshopper Abdomen

abdominal tergites

cercus

spiracles

abdominal sternites

slide42

Insect Respiratory System

Cana lily skipper (a butterfly) larvae have an almost completely transparent exoskeleton, thereby allowing a good view of the tracheal system.

slide43

Incomplete Metamorphosis Example

(hairy chinch bug)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th normal wing short wing

instar instar instar instar instar adult adult

Egg Nymphal Adult

Stage Stage Stage

slide44

Egg Larval Pupal Adult

Stage Stage Stage Stage

Complete Metamorphosis Example

(northern masked chafer)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult

instar instar instar

slide45

Hexapod Orders

Entognathous Hexapods –

Order Protura

Order Collembola

Order Diplura

Ectognathous apterygote Hexapods –

Order Microcoryphia

Order Thysanura

Pterygote Hexapods –

(simple metamorphosis)

Order Ephemeroptera

Order Odonata

Order Orthoptera

Order Phasmatodea

Order Dermaptera

Order Plecoptera

Order Isoptera

(simple metamorphosis cont’d)

Order Mantodea

Order Blattodea

Order Hemiptera

Order Thysanoptera

Order Psocoptera

Order Phthiraptera

(complete metamorphosis)

Order Coleoptera

Order Neuroptera

Order Hymenoptera

Order Trichoptera

Order Lepidoptera

Order Siphonaptera

Order Diptera

slide46

Orders of Insects

(no metamorphosis)

  • Some consider these groups insect-like and place in different class or subclass.
  • Adults do not have wings and may molt after becoming mature
  • Collembola - springtails
  • Thysanura - silverfish, firebrats
order collembola glue wedge springtails
Order Collembola (glue wedge)springtails
  • Wingless (primitively)
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual (no) metamorphosis
  • Adults continue to molt
  • Feed on plants, bacteria, & fungi
  • Important as decomposers
slide48

collophore

furcula

order thysanura bristle tail silverfish firebrats
Order Thysanura (bristle tail)silverfish & firebrats
  • Look like they have 3 tails –
    • 2 cerci
    • 1 median filament
  • Wingless (primitively)
  • Most are covered with scales
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual (no) metamorphosis
  • Feed on organic matter, starchy materials
slide51

silverfish

firebrat

order orthoptera straight wing grasshoppers crickets
Order Orthoptera (straight wing) grasshoppers & crickets
  • Two pairs wings
    • Forewings leathery & narrow; protect
    • Hindwings membranous, fan-folded
    • Some are wingless (cave crickets)
  • Most have hind legs enlarged for jumping
  • Females have prominent ovipositor
  • Produce songs by rubbing wing bases together or rubbing the wings on their legs
order dermaptera skin wing earwigs
Order Dermaptera (skin wing) earwigs
  • Cercilike forceps, pinchers
    • Defense, prey capture, mating
  • Elongate, flattened
  • Two pairs of wings
    • Forewings usually short, hard
    • Hindwings membranous, folded
    • Few species are wingless
slide56

Seashore earwig

Ringlegged earwig

order isoptera equal wing termites
Order Isoptera (equal wing)termites
  • Social
  • Reproductives (queens & kings)
    • Four wings of equal size
    • Wings twice the length of the body
    • Wings lack cross-veins
  • Workers & soldiers
    • Lack wings
    • Body white
    • Distinguish from ants:
      • Lack of elbowed antennae
      • No constriction between abdomen & thorax
order mantodea soothsayer mantids praying mantid
Order Mantodea (soothsayer)mantids / praying mantid
  • Large (50-100 mm)
  • Forelegs modified for grasping prey
  • Predatory
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
order blattodea cockroaches
Order Blattodea cockroaches
  • Flattened body
  • Long slender antennae
  • Wings thickened, leathery
  • Wings reduced in some species
  • Legs modified for running
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Gradual metamorphosis
  • Feed on organic matter, stored products, plants
order hemiptera half wing true bugs bug like insects
Order Hemiptera(half wing)true bugs & bug-like insects
  • Formerly 2 separate orders; recently combined
  • Suborder Heteroptera
  • Suborders Auchenorrhyncha & Sternorrhyncha (former Homoptera)
order thysanoptera fringe wing thrips
Order Thysanoptera(fringe wing)thrips
  • Small (most <4 mm), elongate
  • Chewing mouthparts
    • Small conical beak
    • Rasping mouthparts
  • Most with 4 wings
    • Strap-like
    • Fringed with long bristles
    • Some species are wingless
order phthiraptera lice without wings
Order Phthiraptera(lice without wings)
  • Formerly 2 separate orders
  • Suborder Mallophaga (wool eater): chewing lice
  • Suborder Anoplura (unarmed tail): sucking lice
slide82

Head louse

Head louse nit (egg)

order coleoptera sheath wing beetles
Order Coleoptera(sheath wing) beetles
  • Largest order in animal kingdom
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Complex metamorphosis
  • Forewings (elytra) are hardened, opaque, meet in the midline of back
  • Hindwings membranous, folded under elytra
  • Feed on plants, organic matter, stored products; or predatory
order neuroptera nerve wing lacewings dobsonflies antlions owlflies
Order Neuroptera(nerve wing)lacewings & dobsonflies, antlions, owlflies
  • Wings
    • Membranous, 2 pairs
    • Approximately equal size
    • Many veins & cross-veins
  • Chewing mouthparts, sometimes modified
  • Complex metamorphosis
  • Members of interest are predators
order hymenoptera marriage wing bees wasps sawflies ants
Order Hymenoptera(marriage wing)bees, wasps, sawflies, ants
  • Wings:
    • 4 membranous wings
    • Hind pair smaller than front pair
    • Pairs attached by row of small hooks
  • Bees, wasps, & ants have second abdominal segment constricted & narrow; i.e. effect of “wasp-waist”
  • Sawflies have broadly joined thorax & abdomen
order lepidoptera scale wing moths butterflies
Order Lepidoptera(scale wing)moths & butterflies
  • Shingle-like scales on wings
  • 4 wings, often colorful
  • Complex metamorphosis
  • Mouthparts
    • Chewing in larva
    • Sucking (siphoning) or none in adults
    • Proboscis in butterflies: coiled siphon
  • Larvae (caterpillars) – 2-5 prolegs on abdomen
order siphonaptera sucking wingless fleas
Order Siphonaptera(sucking wingless) fleas
  • Body: small, hard, laterally compressed
  • Wingless
  • Mouthparts:
    • Piercing/sucking for blood in adult
    • Chewing in larva
  • Larvae feed on organic matter
order diptera two wing true flies
Order Diptera (two wing)true flies
  • Mouthparts:
    • Sucking: modified piercing/ sucking, sponging, lapping, slashing in adult
    • Modified chewing in larva
  • One pair wings, on mesothorax
  • Metathorax has 1 pair of small, knobbed appendages (halteres)
  • Occasionally wingless