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Software Project Management

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  1. Software Project Management Lecture # 11

  2. Outline • Quality Management (chapter 26 - Pressman) • Software reviews • Formal Inspections & Technical Reviews • FTR & its features • Cost Impact of Software Defects • Defect Amplification & Removal • Formal Approaches to SQA

  3. Software Reviews • Software Reviews are applied at various stages of software engg. process to identify errors that can be removed • Hence they are a filter or purifier for software process • Reviews are important as errors often go unnoticed by the originator. Others can catch them more easily. • The idea is to use diverse people as reviewers to: • Point out improvements in a product • Confirm parts of product that do not need improvement • Achieve technical work of uniform or at least predictable quality

  4. Formal Inspections & Technical Reviews • Formal inspection is a formal & scheduled activity where a designer presents material about a design and a selected group of peers evaluate the tech. aspects of the design • Formal inspection or Formal Technical Review (FTR) is an SQA activity • Its objectives are: • To uncover errors in function, logic or implementation for any s/w • To verify s/w under review meets its requirements • To ensure that s/w complies to standards • To achieve a s/w developed in uniform manner • To make projects more manageable

  5. FTR & its features • FTR is conducted as a meeting and is a set of reviews including walk- throughs, inspections, round-robin reviews and technical assessments • Its distinguishing features are: • Knowledgeable peers are used • The producer is an active participant • An explicit, completed work product is inspected • The primary purpose is to find defects • Specific roles are assigned • Specific inspection steps are used • At least 3 to 5 people are involved

  6. Inspection Roles • Moderator • Review leader • Selects the team • conducts inspections • Reports results • Reader • Usually not the producer • Will guide the team through the work product during inspection • Recorder • Maintains records of inspection and accurately reports each defect • Producer • Who originally produced the product • He/she is required to answer questions during inspection • Responsible for correcting identified problems

  7. FTR Steps • FTR focuses on portion of the overall software. Rather than reviewing entire component, portions can be under focus • Following are the FTR steps • Overview • The producer gives an overview of the work product to acquaint the team with the product • Advanced Preparation • Moderator give a copy of product details to each reviewer • Each review team member studies his/her copy • Base don product size, preparation time is decided, typically more than 2 hours per person • A checklist is used to focus on significant issues • Inspection Meeting • Moderator supervises the meeting • Some approaches use a reader other than producer to conduct the inspection

  8. FTR Steps (contd.) • The producer/reader can explain material while reviewers raise issues based on their preparation • Recorder maintains record of issues raised • All team members sign the compiled review report • Review meeting should be les than 2 hours long • Decision made by all review members is made to • Accept • Reject • Provisionally accept • Rework • The producer reviews the report and corrects the product • Follow up • Moderator reviews report and corresponding corrections • If satisfied, the inspection/review is completed • If not, the moderator can make the producer rework and re- inspection can be scheduled

  9. Review guidelines • Review the product, not the producer • Set an agenda and maintain it • Limit debate and rebuttal • Indicate the problem area but don’t attempt to solve every problem noted • Take written notes • Limit number of participants & insist on advanced preparation • Develop a checklist for each product to be reviewed • Allocate resources & schedule time for FTRs • Conduct meaningful training of all reviewers • Review your early reviews