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Software Project Management. Session 9: Project Control. Today. Session 8 Review Project Control Status Reporting Earned Value Analysis MS Project. Session 8 Review. Project roles and team structure CMM Requirements. Project Control. Ongoing effort to keep your project on track

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software project management

Software Project Management

Session 9: Project Control

Q7503, Fall 2002

today
Today
  • Session 8 Review
  • Project Control
  • Status Reporting
  • Earned Value Analysis
  • MS Project

Q7503, Fall 2002

session 8 review
Session 8 Review
  • Project roles and team structure
  • CMM
  • Requirements

Q7503, Fall 2002

project control
Project Control
  • Ongoing effort to keep your project on track
  • 4 primary activities:
    • 1. Planning performance
      • A SDP, schedule, and a control process
    • 2. Measuring status of work performed
      • Actuals
    • 3. Comparing to baseline
      • Variances
    • 4. Taking corrective action as needed
      • Response
  • Prerequisite to good control is a good plan

Q7503, Fall 2002

project control5
Project Control
  • “Control”
      • Power, authority, domination. No.
      • Guiding a course of action to meet an objective. Yes.
  • Principles
      • Work is controlled, not workers
        • Control helps workers be more effective & efficient
      • Control based on work completed
        • Use concrete deliverables
      • Balance
        • Appropriate level between too much and too little
        • Includes:
          • Micro-managing vs. neglect
          • Too much tracking detail vs. too little

Q7503, Fall 2002

progress monitoring
Progress Monitoring
  • The 3 key Progress Monitoring Questions
    • What is the actual status?
    • If there’s a variance, what is cause?
    • What to do about it?
  • Possible responses
      • 1. Ignore
      • 2. Take corrective action
      • 3. Review the plan

Q7503, Fall 2002

progress monitoring7
Progress Monitoring
  • Monitoring rates
    • Daily, weekly, monthly
    • If problems occur – then adjust
      • You may have to monitor problem areas more closely
      • For some period of time
      • Almost always there’s one or more areas under closer scrutiny
  • Status Reporting
    • Part of the communications management plan
        • Which is usually just a section of SDP

Q7503, Fall 2002

status reports
Status Reports
  • From team to PM, from PM to stakeholders
  • Typical format for latter
    • Summary
    • Accomplishments for this period (done)
      • Tasks, milestones, metrics
    • Plans for next period (to-do)
    • Risk analysis and review
    • Issues & Actions
  • Shoot for weekly updates
    • Email notes, then hold brief meeting
    • More frequently during crises

Q7503, Fall 2002

programming status reporting
Programming Status Reporting
  • A programmer reports that he’s 90% done.
    • What does this mean?
  • A programmer reports completing 4,000 LOC on estimated 5,000 LOC effort.
      • Is this 80% complete?
      • Quality?
      • Ratio, estimated to completed?
        • Your estimates could have been wrong
      • If you can’t measure scope or quality you don’t know “reality”
      • You really only know cost (hours spent)
      • How can you improve this?

Q7503, Fall 2002

binary reporting
Binary Reporting
  • Work packages (tasks) can only be in one of 2 states: complete or incomplete
    • No partial credit
  • Preferred to anything subjective!
  • “90% Complete Syndrome”
    • Software is 90% complete 90% of the time
  • Use lower-level task decomposition
  • Tangible exit criteria
  • Plan for 4-80 staff hours of effort per task

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis eva
Earned Value Analysis (EVA)
  • a.k.a. Earned Value Management (EVM)
  • a.k.a. Variance Analysis
  • Metric of project tracking
  • “What you got for what you paid”
    • Physical progress
  • Pre-EVA ‘traditional’ approach
      • 1. Planned time and costs
      • 2. Actual time and costs
      • Progress: compare planned vs. actual
  • EVA adds third dimension: value
      • Planned, actual, earned

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis
Earned Value Analysis
  • Forecasting
    • Old models include cost & expenditure
    • EVA adds schedule estimation
  • Measured in dollars or hours
    • Often time used in software projects
  • Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB)
      • Time-phased budget plan against which contract performance is measured
      • Cost & schedule variances go against this
      • Best via a bottom-up plan

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis13
Earned Value Analysis
  • Different methods are available
    • Binary Reporting
    • Others include
      • Based on % complete
      • Weights applied to milestones
  • EVA can signal errors as early as 15% into project
  • Alphabet Soup

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis14
Earned Value Analysis
  • 3 major components
    • BCWS: Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled
      • Now called “Planned Value” (PV)
      • “Yearned”
      • How much work should be done?
    • BCWP: Budgeted Cost of Work Performed
      • Now called “earned value” (EV)
      • “Earned”
      • How much work is done?
      • BCWS * % complete
    • ACWP: Actual Cost of Work Performed
      • Now called “Actual Cost” (AC)
      • “Burned”
      • How much did the work done cost?

Q7503, Fall 2002

derived eva variances
Derived EVA Variances
  • SV: Schedule Variance
    • BCWP – BCWS
    • Planned work vs. work completed
  • CV: Cost Variance
    • BCWP – ACWP
    • Budgeted costs vs. actual costs
  • Negatives are termed ‘unfavorable’
  • Can be plotted on ‘spending curves’
    • Cumulative cost (Y axis) vs. Time (X axis)
    • Typically in an ‘S’ shape
  • “What is the project status”?
    • You can use variances to answer this

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis16
Earned Value Analysis

Q7503, Fall 2002

derived eva ratios
Derived EVA Ratios
  • SPI: Schedule Performance Index
      • BCWP / BCWS
  • CPI: Cost Performance Index
      • BCWP / ACWP
  • Problems in project if either of these less than 1 (or 100%)

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis18
Earned Value Analysis
  • Other Derived Values
      • BAC: Budget At Completion
        • Sum of all budges (BCWS). Your original budget.
      • EAC: Estimate At Completion
        • Forecast total cost at completion
        • EAC = ((BAC – BCWP)/CPI) + ACWP
        • Unfinished work divided by CPI added to sunk cost
        • If CPI < 1, EAC will be > BAC
      • CR: Critical Ratio
        • SPI x CPI
        • 1: everything on track
        • > .9 and < 1.2 ok
        • Can be charted

Q7503, Fall 2002

eva example
EVA Example

As of 1-July where are we?

BCWS

BCWP

ACWP

Q7503, Fall 2002

eva example20
EVA Example

CV

SV

CPI

SPI

CR

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis21
Earned Value Analysis
  • BCWS
    • Use ‘loaded labor’ rates if possible
      • Direct pay + overhead
  • Remember it’s an aggregate figure
    • May hide where the problem lies
    • Beware of counterbalancing issues
      • Over in one area vs. under in another

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis22
Earned Value Analysis
  • Benefits
    • Consistent unit of measure for total progress
    • Consistent methodology
      • Across cost and completed activity
      • Apples and apples comparisons
    • Ability to forecast cost & schedule
    • Can provide warnings early
  • Success factors
    • A full WBS is required (all scope)
    • Beware of GIGO: Garbage-in, garbage-out

Q7503, Fall 2002

the ms project process
The MS-Project Process
  • Move WBS into a Project outline (in Task Sheet)
  • Add resources (team members or roles)
  • Add costs for resources
  • Assign resources to tasks
  • Establish dependencies
  • Refine and optimize
  • Create baseline
  • Track progress (enter actuals, etc.)

Q7503, Fall 2002

project overview
Project Overview
  • This is a ‘quickie’ overview
  • We will return to all of these steps individually over the next few weeks
  • Sample project from McConnell

Q7503, Fall 2002

project ui
Project UI
  • Views
    • Default is Gant Chart View
      • 2 panes
      • Task Sheet on left (a table)
      • Gantt Chart on right
    • View Bar on far left

Q7503, Fall 2002

project ui26
Project UI

Q7503, Fall 2002

create your project
Create Your Project
  • File/New
  • Setup start date
  • Setup calendar
    • Menu: Project/Project Information
    • Often left with default settings
    • Hours, holidays

Q7503, Fall 2002

enter wbs
Enter WBS
  • Outlining
  • Sub-tasks and summary tasks
  • Do not enter start/end dates for each
  • Just start with Task Name and Duration for each
  • Use Indent/Outdent buttons to define summary tasks and subtasks
  • You can enter specific Start/End dates but don’t most of the time

Q7503, Fall 2002

establish durations
Establish Durations
  • Know the abbreviations
    • h/d/w/m
    • D is default
  • Can use partial
    • .5d is a half-day task
  • Elapsed durations
  • Estimated durations
    • Put a ‘?’ after duration

Q7503, Fall 2002

add resources
Add Resources
  • Work Resources
    • People
  • Material Resources
    • Things
    • Can be used to track costs
      • Ex: amount of equipment purshased
    • Not used as often in typical software project

Q7503, Fall 2002

resource sheet
Resource Sheet
  • Can add new resources here
    • Or directly in the task entry sheet
      • Beware of mis-spellings (Project will create near-duplicates)
  • Setup costs
    • Such as annual salary (put ‘yr’ after ‘Std. Rate’)

Q7503, Fall 2002

effort driven scheduling
Effort-Driven Scheduling
  • MS-Project default
  • Duration * Units = Work
      • Duration = Work / Units (D = W/U)
      • Work = Duration * Units (W = D*U)
      • Units = Work / Duration (U = W/D)
  • Adding more resources to a task shortens duration
  • Can be changed on a per-task basis
      • In the advanced tab of Task Information dialog box
      • Task Type setting
  • Beware the Mythical Man-month
      • Good for laying bricks, not always so for software development

Q7503, Fall 2002

link tasks
Link Tasks
  • On toolbar: Link & Unlink buttons
    • Good for many at once
  • Or via Gantt chart
    • Drag from one task to another

Q7503, Fall 2002

milestones
Milestones
  • Zero duration tasks
  • Insert task ‘normally’ but put 0 in duration

Q7503, Fall 2002

make assignments
Make Assignments
  • Approach 1. Using Task Sheet
    • Using Resource Names column
    • You can create new ones by just typing-in here
  • 2. Using Assign Resources dialog box
    • Good for multiple resources
    • Highlight task, Tools/Resources or toolbar button
  • 3. Using Task Information dialog
    • Resources tab
  • 4. Task Entry view
    • View/More Views/Task Entry
    • Or Task Entry view on Resource Mgmt. toolbar

Q7503, Fall 2002

save baseline
Save Baseline
  • Saves all current information about your project
    • Dates, resource assignments, durations, costs

Q7503, Fall 2002

fine tune
Fine Tune
  • Then is used later as basis for comparing against “actuals”
  • Menu: Tools/Tracking/Save Baseline

Q7503, Fall 2002

project 2002
Project 2002
  • 3 Editions: Standard, Professional, Server
  • MS Project Server 2002
      • Upgrade of old “Project Central”
      • Includes “Project Web Access”, web-based UI (partial)
      • Workgroup and resource notification features
      • Requires SQL-Server and IIS
      • “Portfolio Analyzer”
        • Drill-down into projects via pivot tables & charts
      • “Portfolio Modeler”
        • Create models and “what-if” scenarios
      • SharePoint Team Services integration

Q7503, Fall 2002

project 200239
Project 2002
  • MS-Project Professional
    • “Build Team” feature
      • Skills-based resource matching
    • Resource Pools: with skill set tracking
    • Resource Substitution Wizard
  • “Project Guide” feature
    • Customizable “process component”

Q7503, Fall 2002

ms project q a
MS-Project Q&A
  • Your WBS in Project
  • How did it go?
  • Any questions?

Q7503, Fall 2002

homework
Homework
  • Schwalbe: 7 “Project Quality Management”
  • URLs
    • “Introduction to Software Testing”
      • http://www.iplbath.com/pdf/p0820.pdf
    • “Introduction to Software Testing Principles”
      • http://www.qestest.com/principl.htm
  • Project plan:
    • Develop and submit an initial copy of the project plan (limited to tasks & milestones) for your individual project

Q7503, Fall 2002

questions
Questions?

Q7503, Fall 2002