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The Hindu Media Resource Centre M S Swaminathan Research Foundation. Remember your humanity : Lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki . Chennai, 6 August 2005. Prof M.S. Swaminathan President, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. Hiroshima, August 6, 1945.

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The Hindu Media Resource Centre

M S Swaminathan Research Foundation

Remember your humanity :

Lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Chennai, 6 August 2005

Prof M.S. Swaminathan

President, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs




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Bertrand Russell reading the proclamation of the Russell – Einstein Manifesto in Caxton Hall, London on 9 July 1955


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Russell – Einstein Manifesto

Most of us are not neutral in feeling, but, as human beings, we have to remember that, if the issues between East and West are to be decided in any manner that can give any possible satisfaction to anybody, whether Communist or anti-Communist, whether Asian or European or American, whether White or Black, then these issues must not be decided by war. We should wish this to be understood, both in the East and in the West.

Contd…


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Russell – Einstein Manifesto

There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings : Remember your humanity, and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open to a new Paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death.


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I have to bring to your notice a terrifying reality; with the development of nuclear weapons, man has acquired, for the first time in history, the technical means to destroy the whole of civilization in a single act, indeed the whole human species is endangered, by nuclear weapons or by other means of wholesale destruction which further advances in science are likely to produce.

Joseph Rotblat

1955


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Scientists can no longer stand aloof from the question of whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Radiations cause mutations in genetic material and can thereby cause harm to the generations yet to be born

Hermann J Muller

1890 - 1967


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60 Years After Hiroshima : Voices of the Survivors whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Ms. Shigeko Sasamori ( 73 years)

“Let my body remind you how those who survive would look like, if the world’s leaders do not have the sanity to abolish nuclear weapons.”

New Mexico, July 18, 200560th anniversary of the Atomic Tests


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Mr. Akihiro Takahashi (76 years old) whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

“Words can never describe the horror. Hatred breeds hatred. Compulsory and life long education on the folly of wars and the indescribable cruelty of nuclear weapons is essential”.

55th Pugwash Conference, HiroshimaJuly 23, 2005


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Wake Up Call whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

  • There is a growing violence in the human heart. Hence, urgent steps are needed to heal wounds and restore harmony within the human family.

  • Avoid the possibility of a horrible shift from Nuclear Weapons States to Nuclear Weapons Groups and Individuals, by heeding to the Russel-Einstein warning, “Shall we instead choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels.”


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First Steps on the Road to Pugwash whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

  • Early in 1954, Jawaharlal Nehru, then Prime Minister of India, “called for the setting up of a Committee of Scientists to explain to the world the effect a nuclear war would have on humanity” (Pugwash History Series, No 1, p. 22)

  • This idea was taken up and in the spring of 1954, Joseph Rotblat and Eugene Rabinowitch polled leaders in the scientific organizations of the desirability of organizing an international conference on science and world affairs. Thus was born the Pugwash Conferences.


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Six Steps

Step 1: All nations with nuclear weapons should adopt during 2005 a legally mandatory policy of “no first use for nuclear weapons”, as homage to the survivors of the nuclear tragedy of 1945


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Step 2:

  • Respect commitments to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT),

  • Ratify Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

  • Conclude a Fissile Material Cut Off Treaty, and

  • Ban all research relating to the development of new nuclear weapons


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Step 3:

Conclude a Nuclear Weapons Convention outlining a road map for getting to Zero by 2020.


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Step 4:

Avoid prospects for nuclear terrorism and adventurism by eliminating all unsecured nuclear fissile material and by implementing the concrete steps proposed by Pugwash for the elimination of highly enriched uranium; otherwise there is risk of nuclear power groups and individuals emerging, in addition to nuclear power states.


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Step 5:

Because of the multi-dimensional threats posed to human security by climate change, and the consequent need for reducing green house gas emissions, interest and investment in nuclear power plants are growing. The civilian uses of atomic energy are likely to grow. Hence, the UN may convene an International Conference on the Civilian Uses of Atomic Energy to develop a Code of Conduct to ensure that the non-military use of nuclear fuels does not get abused and to further strengthen safeguards and the inspection role and monitoring capacity of IAEA.


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Step 6:

Democratic systems of governance are fast spreading in the world, which involve the holding of free and fair elections periodically. It would be useful to develop a Hiroshima – Nagasaki 60th Anniversary Appeal which calls upon all political parties in every country to include in their next election manifesto, a firm commitment to work for speedy nuclear disarmament with a view to rid the world of the nuclear-peril as soon as technically feasible.

Contd…


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Towards a Nuclear-peril Free World whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Step 6:

Without global political commitment, this goal cannot be achieved. At the same time, it would be useful to introduce in all school curricula information relating to the consequences of the use of nuclear weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, so as to bring home the immediate and long term disastrous impact of a nuclear war. Without public and political education, the climate for peace and nuclear disarmament will not exist.


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The Great Bengal Famine 1942-43 whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Non-Military threats to human security


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Science and The UN Millennium Development Goals whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Goal 2:Achieve universal primary education

Goal 3:Promote gender equality and empower women

Goal 4:Reduce child mortality

Goal 5:Improve maternal health

Goal 6:Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Goal 7:Ensure environmental sustainability

Goal8 :Develop a Global Partnership for Development


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Progress towards achieving the MDGs in India whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Contd …


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Progress towards achieving the MDGs in India whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.

Contd …


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Progress towards achieving the MDGs in India whether their work will be used to wreck or to re-create civilization, even though they can scarcely have the deciding voice.


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“Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket signifies in the final sense, a theft from those who are hungry and are not fed, from those who are cold and are not clothed.”

“The world in arms is not spending money alone.

It is spending the sweat of its labourers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children”.

Dwight D Eisenhower

President of the United States

August 16, 1953


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60 Years After rocket signifies in the final sense, a theft from those who are hungry and are not fed, from those who are cold and are not clothed.”Hiroshima and Nagasaki : Ecstasy and Agony

  • For 60 years, nuclear weapons have existed but have not been used. This is a tribute to the work of Pugwash, many civil society organisations and mass media.

  • Unfortunately, we are now entering an unchartered territory in human conflicts and retribution. At least to prevent the potential non-State use of nuclear weapons, Nuclear Weapon States should not lose even a day in working towards the goal of Zero in the existence of nuclear arsenals


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