The Settlement of the Chesapeake
TheLondonCompany,1606 Get rich quick!
English Attempts at Colonization • Roanoke, North Carolina • Established in 1584 by Sir Walter Raleigh • Approximately 100 men were left to be supplied later (1586) • New group established colony again, but became the “Lost colony” after 1587 when explorers could not find the colonists on Roanoke Island • Results - Raleigh was unsuccessful (and would later be executed) which opened the door for Jamestown in 1607
Captain John Smith “There was no talk… but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold…”
English Migration 1610-1660 Headright System?
Settlement Patterns • Chesapeake colonists tended to settle farther apart due to the nature of their economic enterprise • Not many women at first • Not many social gatherings (unless you were rich) • No towns or villages, only small settlements
Jamestown, Virginia 1607 • Established by the Virginia Company • Most colonists were there for economic gain • No tools for farming • Mostly men as population • Experienced a “starving time” during the first winter • Relied on the assistance of the Natives *Cash crops (tobacco) would eventually assist in saving this colony in Chesapeake region*
Tobacco Plant “Virginia’s gold and silver.” -John Rolfe, 1612
River Settlement Patterns • Large plantations (greater than 100 acres) • Widely spread apart (greater than 5 miles) PROBLEMS???
Jamestown Colonization Pattern 1620-1660 • What do you notice about settlements in this area? • How will they differ from the New England patterns of settlement?
Chesapeake Expansion 1607 – 1700 • Take notice of the “fall line”: • What was the “fall line”? • What was its significance? • What made expansion happen in this region?
Early Colonial Tobacco 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco
Why was the mortality rate so high? • POPULATION: • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80%
Widow-archy High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!
Indentured Servitude • Indenture Contract: • 5-7 years. • Promised “freedom dues” (land, money) • Forbidden to marry • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts • Headright System: • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid
Chief Powhatan Pocohantas
Government in the Chesapeake • Governments usually revolved around landowners and their interests • Headright system: Wealthy people could amass HUGE tracts of land • Poor whites and freed indentured servants would be forced to the frontier; no need for government participation • First Representative Government: The House of Burgesses (represented the interests of the landowners)
CONFLICTS!! Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 - 1677 Nathaniel Bacon Governor Berkeley
Religion in the Chesapeake region was not very important due to the settlements being so spread out Education was only available to those who could afford it Religion and Education
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore MARYLAND
Religious Toleration? • Originally, Calvert intended Maryland to be a haven for English Catholics; didn’t necessarily happen that way. • Few Catholics went to Maryland; cheap land created a plantation system that would dominate Maryland’s economy • Religion would divide the population; Catholics vs. Protestants • Act for Religious Toleration, 1649
Religious Toleration II • Act for Religious Toleration 1649; Setbacks • Didn’t protect non-Christians • No separation of Church and State • Protestants threw out the “pro-tolerance” governor, hanged Catholics, and generally harassed all Catholics in Maryland’s settlements; would last until 1658 Problems continue due to Protestant vs. Catholics