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Chemiluminescence , Bioluminescence , and the Luciferin -Luciferase ATP Detection Assay. Ashley Long February 22, 2011 Bioanalytical Chemistry – Spring 2011. Overview . Background on Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence

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chemiluminescence bioluminescence and the luciferin luciferase atp detection assay

Chemiluminescence,Bioluminescence, and the Luciferin-Luciferase ATP Detection Assay

Ashley Long

February 22, 2011

Bioanalytical Chemistry – Spring 2011

overview
Overview
  • Background on Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence
  • General overview of uses of Bioluminescence in High-Throughput Screening (HTS)
  • Introduction to the Luciferin-Luciferase ATP detection assay and its importance in HTS
the firefly
The firefly

Image from: http://scienceline.org/2010/11/lighting-the-way/

what is chemiluminescence
What is chemiluminescence?
  • Occurs when an EXOTHERMIC CHEMICAL reaction releases energy to generate electromagnetic radiation which gives off light1,2
  • Types1:
    • Reactions with synthetic compounds (i.e. H2O2)
    • Bioluminescent reactions – from a living organism
    • Electrochemiluminescent reactions – use electric current
more on chemiluminescence
More on Chemiluminescence

Fluorescence

Chemiluminescence

See energy gain through chemical reaction

Lower signal (intensity), but little to NO background = beter S/N

  • Light must be absorbed by fluorophore to reach excited state
  • Brighter, but MORE background

(Figure 1) Citation 2

what is bioluminescence
What is bioluminescence?
  • A type of chemiluminescencethat occurs in living organisms
  • Enzyme catalyzed reactions
    • Enzymes: luciferases
      • Firefly luciferase
      • Renilla luciferase (sea pansy)
      • Aequorin (jellyfish- Aequorea victoria)
    • Substrates (photon-emitting): luciferins

Citation 2; Image taken fromhttp://www.biosynth.com/index.asp?topic_id=119&g=19&m=264:

firefly bioluminescence
Firefly Bioluminescence
  • Light Intensity ~ Chemical Concentration
    • [Chemical] of interest can be ATP, luciferin, or luciferase (hold all others constant)
    • Very large linear range
  • Most common luciferase used in the development of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays

Citation 2

firefly luciferase catalyzed rxn
Firefly Luciferase Catalyzed Rxn

Yellow-green light λmax = 560 nm

(Figure 2) Citation 2

how do you detect the signal
How do you detect the signal?

The GloMax® 20/20 Luminometer is designed to provide ultra-high performance for bioluminescent and chemiluminescent assays. In addition to high performance, the GloMax® 20/20 blends user-friendly operation and a small footprint with flexible purchasing options. The result of this design is an instrument with superior performance that is easy to use, affordable, and can be customized to your lab’s needs.3

The GloMax®-96 Microplate Luminometer is a state-of-the-art microplate luminometer that meets the requirement for high sensitivity and broad dynamic range that is necessary for chemiluminescent and bioluminescent applications. With optional Single or Dual Auto Injectors, the GloMax®-96 is a versatile luminescence system capable of performing both flash and glow-type luminescent assays.3

Citation 3

hts luciferase concentration
HTS: Luciferase Concentration
  • Goal: investigate intracellular events by monitoring gene transcription
  • May include internal control (dual-luciferase assay)
  • Simple and efficient (HTS)
  • Commonly used for GPCR and nuclear receptor assays

(Figure 3) Citation 2

hts luciferin concentration
HTS: Luciferin Concentration
  • Luciferin is not naturally linked to physiology (vs. ATP)
  • Use a Pro-luciferin
    • Enzyme of interest must convert this to luciferin link luminescent signal to enzyme of interest

(Figure 3) Citation 2

hts atp concentration
HTS: ATP Concentration
  • Enzyme must be consistent!  Often use “stabilized” luciferase enzymes for HTS
  • Used in:
    • Cytotoxicity screens  ATP concentrations ~ cell viability
    • Kinase activity screens  all kinases consume ATP in phosphorylation rxn
    • Real-time detection of ATPase activity4
    • ~ 100X more sensitive and significantly faster than some dye assays used to look at cell metabolism

(Figure 3) Citation 2

examples of hts assays
Examples of HTS assays
  • Luciferase Enzymatic Activity monitoring assays2
    • Sensitive & broad detection range
  • Protein- Protein interaction assays5,6
    • BRET – Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer
    • PCA – Protein fragment complementation assay
  • Real-time bioluminescence to analyze inhibitors of polymerases (DNA & RNA)7

(Figure 2) Citation 6

examples of hts assays15
Examples of HTS assays
  • BL/CL recombinant whole-cell biosensors
    • Genetically engineered cells
    • Create a luminescent signal ~ to a specific analyte (analyte should be regulating gene expression)
    • Used for monitoring:
      • Stress, oxidants, metals, xenobiotics, receptor activating molecules, etc.

(Figure 5), Citation 6

atp assay kit demonstration
ATP Assay Kit - Demonstration
  • ATP Determination Kit
    • Molecular Probes (Invitrogen )
    • Bioluminescence assay
    • Quantitative determination of ATP concentrations
    • Components:
      • Recombinant firefly luciferase (enzyme)
      • D-luciferin(substrate)

(Mg2+) (luciferase)

Luciferin+ ATP + O2

oxyluciferin + AMP + pyrophosphate + CO2 + light

Citation 8

atp determination kit
ATP Determination Kit
  • Advantages:
    • Very sensitive
    • Detect down to ~ 0.1 picomoles of ATP (must create a standard curve within the desired range)
    • Readily available & affordable
  • Uses:
    • Versatile (can be used to look at ATP production in different enzymatic reactions) – NADPH, ATPase
    • Detect contamination in a range of samples (milk, blood, sludge, etc.)
    • Many others!

Citation 8

we can detect atp so what
We can detect ATP. So what?
  • ATP is required for cellular metabolism9
  • “… each human being recycles the equivalent of his/her own mass of ATP every day.”9
  • Extracellular ATP concentrations are critical in biological receptor response10

Image from: http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Chemistry/MOTM/atp/atp1.htm

areas of interest for atp quantitation
Areas of interest for ATP quantitation
  • The Mitochondria – the “powerhouse” of the cell
    • Complex system
    • ATP is produced and sent to the cell
  • Implications in cardiomyopathies

Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carrier

(Figure 1) Citation 9

rapid hygiene tester biothema
Rapid Hygiene Tester (Biothema)
  • Detect ATP (quickly) down to very low detection
    • i.e. ATP in one animal cell (~ 1 pg)
  • Also developed to test AMP as well (bi-product of ATP breakdown)
  • Important in the food production industry, labs, hospitals, etc.

Citation 11

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence are common, extremely versatile, and useful analytical tools
  • HTS methods are becoming increasingly more dependent upon this “background-free” technique
  • The ATP Detection Assay could have huge implications in pharmacology as it evolves for different types of detection
works cited
Works Cited
  • "Chemiluminescence." Lumigen, INC - A Beckman Coulter Company. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http://www.lumigen.com/detection_technologies/chemiluminescence/>.
  • Fan, Frank, and Keith V. Wood. "Technology Review: Bioluminescent Assays for High-Throughput Screening." ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies 5.1 (2006): 127-36.Fan, Frank and Wood V. Keith. ASSAY and Drug Development Technolgoies. V5, N1. 2007.
  • "Luminometer Comparison Chart of Microplate/Multiwell and Single Tube Luminometers from Promega." Promega Luminometers, Fluorometers, and Multimode Readers. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. http://www.luminometer.com/instruments/luminometers-dual-luciferase-ATP-ELISA.php?gclid=CIel3d-r9qYCFYbb4Aodw3MjFg.
  • Karamohamed, Samer, and Guido Guidotti. "Bioluminometric Method for Real-Time Detection of ATPase Activity." BioTechniques 31 (2001): 420-25.
  • Hoshino, Hideto. "Current Advanced Bioluminescence Technology in Drug Discover." Expert Opinion in Drug Discovery 4.4 (2009): 373-89.
  • Roda, Aldo, Patrizia Pasini, Mara Mirasoli, Elisa Michelini, and Massimo Guardigli. "Biotechnological Applications of Bioluminescence Adn Chemiluminescence." TRENDS in Biotechnology 22.6 (2004): 295-303.
  • Gregory, Kalvin J., Ye Sun, Nelson G. Chen, and Valeri Golovlev. "Real-time Bioluminescent Assay for Inhibitors of RNA and DNA Polymerases and Other ATP-dependent Enzymes." Analytical Biochemistry 408 (2011): 226-34.
  • "ATP Determination Kit (A22066)." Product Information: Molecular Probe: Invitrogen detection technologies. Revised 29-Nov-2005.
  • Dahout-Gonzalez, C., H. Nury, V. Trezequet, J. M. Lauquin, E. Pebay-Peyroula, and G. Brandolin. "Molecular, Functional, and Pathological Aspects of the Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carrier." PHYSIOLOGY 21 (2006): 242-49.
  • Seminario-Vidal, Lucia, Eduardo R. Lazarowski, and Seiko F. Okada. "Assessment of Extracellular ATP." Bioluminescence, Methods in Molecular Biology 574 (2009): 25-36.
  • "Can You Say It's Clean with Confidence?" BioThema - Luminescence Analysis, We Sell Our Kits and Reagents Worldwide. Web. 14 Feb. 2011. <http://www.biothema.com/news_newsdetail.do;jsessionid=A047393FA5453A636E59B387B9B173B6?newsentryid=12〈=en>.
works cited other helpful websites
Works Cited – Other Helpful Websites
  • http://uvminerals.org/fms/luminescence
    • Great website which clarifies VERY well the differences in luminescence
  • http://www.photobiology.info/Branchini.htm
    • Great website to visit if you want a better understanding of the chemistry
example of qc in gpcr assay
Example of QC in GPCR assay
  • Dual-Luciferase assay
    • Helps to account for interferences (i.e. from cytotoxic compounds) which could effect results (false -/+’s)
    • Plasmid 1 – firefly luciferase gene, marker, and response element of interest
    • Plasmid 2 – GPCR of interest and Renilla luciferase marker fusion protein

(Figure 4) Citation 2