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Lab Preparation. Initial focus on Speaker Verification Tools Expertise Good example “Biometric technologies are automated methods of verifying or recognising the identity of a living person based on a physical or behavioural characteristic”. MATLAB. function sig = makesine (f, fs, timelen)

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slide1

Lab Preparation

  • Initial focus on Speaker Verification
    • Tools
    • Expertise
    • Good example
      • “Biometric technologies are automated methods of verifying or recognising the identity of a living person based on a physical or behavioural characteristic”
slide2

MATLAB

function sig = makesine (f, fs, timelen)

t = 0:(1/fs):timelen-(1/fs);

sig = sin(2*pi*f*t);

plot (t, sig);

grid;

speech signals
Speech Signals
  • Praat
  • Waveforms
  • F0/Pitch
  • Spectra
  • Time domain measurements & analysis
  • Frequency domain measurements & analysis
  • Male vs female speech
sounds and speech
Sounds and Speech
  • Words contain sequences of sounds
  • Each sound (phone) is produced by sending signals from the brain to the vocal articulators
  • The vocal articulators produce variations in air pressure
  • These variations are transmitted through the air as complex waves
  • These waves are received by the ear and signals are sent to the brain
slide5

Praat: Speech Analysis Tool

Waveform, Spectrogram, Pitch, Formants

waveforms
Waveforms
  • Plot of change in air pressure with time
  • Amplitude
    • Compression/Rarefaction
    • Speech: intensity/loudness
  • Frequency
    • Cycles per second (Hz)
  • Speed
    • Metres per second (ms-1)
  • Wavelength
    • Metres (m) / Microns / Angstroms (Å)
  • Related by

Won’t concern us for now

fundamental frequency1
Fundamental Frequency
  • F0 (pron. F-zero)
  • Rate of opening/closing of glottis
  • Vocal folds do not vibrate like strings but F0 is dependent on similar factors
  • Perceptual correlate is pitch
  • Do not confuse with formant frequencies F1, F2,…!!!
spectra
Spectra
  • Think of a graphic equalizer
  • Speech made from waves of many frequencies
  • Spectrum plots (log) power against frequency
  • Peaks related to resonant frequencies in VT
    • Formants
      • Centre frequency
      • Bandwidth
  • Spectral slice
  • Spectrogram
    • Overhead view of slices against time
    • Darkness related to power
spectral tilt
Spectral Tilt
  • Refers to general slope of spectrum
    • Higher formants are weaker than lower formants
  • Phonation is most significant factor
  • Greater spectral tilt in female speech
    • Ratio of lower formant amplitude to higher formant amplitude greater in males