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Solid Materials

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Solid Materials

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  1. Solid Materials Plastics Ceramics Metals Thermo -settings Thermoplastics Commodity Engineering Specialty www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  2. PLASTICS THERMOPLASTICS • Linear or slightly branched polymer – addition/condensation • Repeated softened at elevated temperature and solidified on cooling • No chemical changes occur • Molecules are held by secondary forces THERMOSETTING PLASTICS • Do not form linear chain – forms 3 –dimensional structure • Hard and infusible and cannot be softened without decomposition • Molecules are held by primary forces. www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  3. FAMILIES OF POLYMER MATERIALS www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  5. Polymers are a large class of materials consisting of many small molecules (called monomers) that can be linked together to form long chains, thus they are known as macromolecules www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  7. Amorphous Vs Crystalline An amorphous solid is formed when the chains have little orientation throughout the bulk polymer. The glass transition temperature is the point at which the polymer hardens into an amorphous solid. This term is used because the amorphous solid has properties similar to glass. In the crystallization process, it has been observed that relatively short chains organize themselves into crystalline structures more readily than longer molecules. Therefore, the degree of polymerization (DP) is an important factor in determining the crystallinity of a polymer. Polymers with a high DP have difficulty organizing into layers because they tend to become tangled www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  9. Thermoplastics From melt to solid www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  10. Various Thermoplastics PI Specialty Polymers PTFE PSU LCP PES HPPA PPSU PA Engineering Polymers PC POM PET PBT PPO TPE ABS PMMA Commodities PE-UHMW PP-GF PS PVC PP PE-HD SAN PE-LD AMORPHOUS CRYSTALLINE www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  11. Why Use Thermoplastics? • Increased performance • Corrosion resistance • Weight reductions (specific strength & stiffness) • Cost reduction! • Parts consolidation & net shape formation • Process elimination (painting, machining, assembly) • Economics of injection molding • Properties can be altered to suit the needs • Good strength/weight ratio • Tough & durable • Non toxic • Easy processability • Chemical/Moisture Resistant • Fire retardant • Do not rust/corrode. • Resistant to microbes • Attractive colours • Good weatherability • Practically maintenance free • Reusable / Recyclable www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  12. Low Density Polyethylene(LDPE) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  13. STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS Susceptible to environmental stress cracking Low strength, stiffness and maximum service temperature High gas permeability, particularly carbon dioxide Poor UV resistance Highly flammable High-frequency welding and joining impossible Poor scratch and abration resistance • Very low cost • Excellent chemical resistance • Very good process-ability • High impact strength at low temperature • Excellent electrical insulating properties • Very low water absorption • FDA compliant • Can be transparent in thin film form • Since it is non-polar, electrical properties are almost independent of temperature and frequency • Tg is well below the room temperature www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  14. Processability www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  15. Packaging www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  16. Agriculture www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  17. Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  20. Packaging www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  21. Applications of LDPE & LLDPE Bottle Caps Green House Cable Sheathing Pouch www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  22. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  26. Polypropylene (PP) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  29. Packaging www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  30. Health Care www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  32. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  35. Electrical www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  36. Building and Construction www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  37. Packaging www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  40. Electrical www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  41. Consumer Goods www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  42. Automotive www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  43. Types of Profiles : • Hollow Profiles • Foam Profiles • Doors : • Aluminium Frame + Hollow Profile • PVC Frame + Hollow Profile • PVC Frame + Foam Sheet • Door Frame • Windows • Sliding • Casement • Single Glazing • Double Glazing • Partitions • False Ceiling • Miscellaneous • (Viz... Kitchen Cabinets etc.) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

  44. Versatility of PVC From Footwear….. www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  46. Polystyrene (PS) www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com

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  50. Packaging www.cse-annauniv.weebly.com