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Contemporary Issues in Schools –. Deborah Dixon, M.A . , CCC-SLP ASHA Director of School Services March 21, 2013 Dearborn, Michigan. Disclosure. Deborah Dixon, Director of School Services, ASHA Financial: I am a paid employee of ASHA

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Contemporary issues in schools

Contemporary Issues in Schools –

Deborah Dixon, M.A., CCC-SLP

ASHA Director of School Services

March 21, 2013

Dearborn, Michigan


Deborah Dixon, Director of School Services, ASHA

Financial: I am a paid employee of ASHA

Non-Financial: I am an ASHA member, and participate in the School Finance Committee which supports increased financial support and other non-financial initiatives for school-based ASHA members. I am also a member of Special Interest Group 16, Schools. I support ASHA’s policy agenda which includes most advocacy initiatives supported by the organization. Although I gain no financial benefit, I am an author of RTI In Action , Oral and Written Language Activities for K-2 Classrooms and the upcoming publication RTI in Action, Grades 3-5, Oral and Written Language Activities for the Common Core State Standards.

Session focus
Session Focus

  • The session will focus on :

    • PACE, ASHA’s alternative to Value Added Assessment

    • Changes that integration of Common Core State Standards will have on speech-language services in the school

    • Information on the changing roles and responsibilities of SLPs in school practice.

    • Response to Intervention

    • Other Important issues members are facing in their current employment setting.

Michigan data
Michigan Data

  • State department of education officials report that shortages of SLPs is a critical issue, especially in the more rural areas of the state.

  • Other evolving issues in the state include

    • Teacher assessment ( Value Added Assessment)

    • Engagement in Response to Intervention

    • Adopting Common Core State Standards

Speech and language impairment 1992 2010
Speech and Language Impairment1992 - 2010

Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

Autism spectrum disorder 1992 2010
Autism Spectrum Disorder1992 - 2010

Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

Educational environment students with ieps ages 6 12 in 2010
Educational EnvironmentStudents with IEPs Ages 6-12 in 2010

Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

Educational environment students with ieps ages 13 21 in 2010
Educational EnvironmentStudents with IEPs Ages 13-21 in 2010

Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

Educational environment students with ieps ages 6 21 in 2010
Educational EnvironmentStudents with IEPs Ages 6-21 in 2010

Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

Identification rates by eligibility in 2010
Identification Rates By Eligibilityin 2010

Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

What are the issues challenging you
What are the Issues Challenging You?

Turn and talk to the person to your left for about 3 minutes.

Discuss the top three issues that are impacting your practice in the schools

Consider volunteering to share the results of your discussion at the end of the discussion period.

National issues
National Issues

Teacher Assessment- Value Added Assessment

SLP and Response to Intervention

Common Core State Standards


Changing roles and responsibilities


Dynamic service delivery models

Budget cuts


Lack of time for planning, collaboration, etc.

Let s begin
Let’s Begin

  • Value Added Assessment

    • What is it?

    • Why is it important?

    • What is ASHA’s alternative?

Value added assessment
Value Added Assessment

Value-added assessment, or VAA is a process to accurately and fairly assess a professional’s impact on student performance and overall success of the school community.

A comprehensive, statistical method of analyzing test data that measures teaching and learning, using results of high stakes testing as well as other measures.

VAA is a statistical method of analyzing test data to measure teaching and learning outcomes. Teacher contributions to student learning are determined by calculating student growth on standardized tests.

How is vaa being used
How is VAA being used?

VAA systems are being utilized to measure teacher effectiveness through a variety of indicators, including improved student test scores.

VAA results are used to make decisions about retention, salary, bonuses, assignments, etc.

What about the evaluation of slps and other school professionals
What about the evaluation of SLPs and other school professionals?

To our knowledge very few if any states have developed VAA measures for SLPs and other specialized instructional support personnel (SISPs)

Many are considering or have begun to develop evaluation measures for SLPs including LA and OK

Pace rationale
PACE- Rationale professionals?

No systems have been developed specifically for SLPs or other support personnel

Systems fail to differentiate between effective and ineffective teachers

Systems are unrelated to professional development and do not incorporate information about specific teacher impact on student performance (Weisberg, Sexton, Mulhern, & Keeling,2009)

Current systems are not accounting for innovative models of instructional organization

Background professionals?

The research that exists about these models indicates they are only reliable over time (i.e., based on several years of data) with larger student populations and when the underlying assessment instruments are fair, accurate, and reliable. (CEC Position on Special Education Teacher Evaluation, 2012)

Current systems do not account for the differences in assignments and responsibilities of various service providers

Research professionals?

  • Current research has focused on classroom teachers

  • Concerns

    • Linking student outcomes to one teacher

    • Accuracy of models

    • Statistical techniques used to analyze student data

    • Separating student factors

  • Research has determined that value-added calculations are invalid for two teachers in a co-teaching environment, as the statistical model cannot determine which or by how much each teacher impacts student learning (Steele et. al., 2010)

Asha s alternative to vaa
ASHA’s Alternative to VAA professionals?

  • Performance Assessment of Contributions and Effectiveness of SLPs Resource

  • A portfolio based assessment process designed to show the value and contributions of school based SLPs.

  • It involves

    • Self assessment

    • Administrative observation

    • Portfolio of evidence

    • Parent and teacher input

The pace matrix
The PACE Matrix professionals?

The matrix consists of a set of nine objectives by which an SLP should be evaluated.

These objectives are derived from typical roles and responsibilities of a school based SLP

A portfolio is developed to show evidence of mastery of each objective

The objectives
The Objectives professionals?

1. Demonstrate knowledge in the subject areas of speech-language pathology and related areas (e.g., literacy, child development ) .

The objectives1
The Objectives professionals?

2. Provide appropriate and educationally relevant services reflecting evidence-based practices.

The objectives2
The Objectives professionals?

3. Provide services that are compliant with state and federal regulations for children with IEPs.

The objectives3
The Objectives professionals?

4. Demonstrate ability to conduct appropriate comprehensive evaluations for students who may be experiencing a variety of communication disorders.

The objectives4
The Objectives professionals?

5. Provide appropriate and dynamic service delivery methods consistent with the wide variety of individual student needs.

The objectives5
The Objectives professionals?

6. Demonstrate collaboration with classroom teachers and other professionals.

The objectives6
The Objectives professionals?

7. Provide opportunities for families to be involved in the student’s SLP services.

The objectives7
The Objectives professionals?

8. Earn continuing education or professional development units sufficient to meet ASHA requirements for certification maintenance as well as state certification and licensing requirements.

The objectives8
The Objectives professionals?

9. Contribute to various building or district initiatives.

Let s talk
Let’s Talk professionals?

Gather into groups of 4-5

Discuss how you are currently evaluated within your school district.

What are the pros and cons of your current evaluation system

Would the PACE be a viable alterative for you? Why or why not?

Please discuss for 5 minutes and be ready to report back a summary of your discussion.

Developing the portfolio
Developing the Portfolio professionals?

  • The portfolio is a comprehensive collection of data, the majority of which is readily available. It should include:

  • Case files to show evidence of

    • report writing ( IEPs and MDEs)

    • progress reports

    • parent and teacher input

    • Indication of meeting regulatory timelines and procedures.

Developing the portfolio1
Developing the Portfolio professionals?

Portfolio should also include:

Professional development log to show participation in a variety of professional development activities

Therapy schedules for objectives 4, 5, 6 and 9, showing dynamic service delivery, RTI efforts, teacher collaboration and assessment work

Teacher, parent and student surveys

Developing the portfolio2
Developing the Portfolio professionals?

The portfolio should include:

  • Self reflection from the Professional Performance Review Process for the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist (2006)

  • Sample presentation materials to show evidence for objectives 1,6, and 7

  • Administrator's observation report

Contemporary issues in schools
PACE professionals?

For more information, including samples of teacher, parent and student checklists, information for evaluators, power points etc. search “PACE” on the ASHA website

Or go to

Common core state standards ccss
Common Core State Standards (CCSS) professionals?

  • What are they?

  • Why are they important?

  • What do they look like?

  • What is expected of students with special needs?

  • What is the role of the SLP in integrating CCSS?

Common core state standards
Common Core State Standards professionals?

Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been adopted by most states across the country.

States are in the process of adjusting curriculums and assessments to reflect the adoption of the standards

The purpose of the CCSS is to provide a clear set of shared goals and expectations of the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in a global society

Reading proficiency
Reading Proficiency professionals?

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 4th grade reading proficiency rates for 2009 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia

Add to these facts
Add to These Facts… professionals?

Dyslexia affects one out of every ____ children – ten million in America alone. Sally Shaywitz, M.D.,2004

The answer is five

Adult literacy
Adult Literacy professionals?

Key points of reading standards
Key Points of Reading Standards professionals?

The standards establish a “staircase” of increasing complexity in what students must be able to read.

The standards also require the progressive development of reading comprehension so that students advancing through the grades are able to gain more from whatever they read.

Through reading a diverse array of classic and contemporary literature as well as challenging informational texts in a range of subjects, students are expected to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspective

Key points of writing standards
Key points of Writing Standards professionals?

The ability to write logical arguments based on substantive claims, sound reasoning, and relevant evidence is a cornerstone of the writing standards, with opinion writing—a basic form of argument—extending down into the earliest grades

Research—both short, focused projects (such as those commonly required in the workplace) and longer term in depth research is emphasized strongly in this set of standards

Key points of speaking and listening
Key Points of Speaking and Listening professionals?

The standards require that students gain, evaluate, and present increasingly complex information, ideas, and evidence through listening and speaking as well as through media

An important focus of the speaking and listening standards is academic discussion in one‐on‐one, small‐group, and whole‐class settings.

Key points of language standards
Key Points of Language Standards professionals?

The standards expect that students will grow their vocabularies through a mix of conversations, direct instruction, and reading. The standards will help students determine word meanings, appreciate the nuances of words, and steadily expand their repertoire of words and phrases.

The standards recognize that students must be able to use formal English in their writing and speaking but that they must also be able to make informed, skillful choices among the many ways to express themselves through language.

Common core state standards1
Common Core State Standards professionals?

  • Examples of CCSS

    • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (reading standards for Literature,grade 2 )

    • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (Reading standards for literature, grade 5 )

    • Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.(Reading standards for informational text, grade 3 )

Ccss examples
CCSS Examples professionals?

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.(5th grade writing standard)

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led)

with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly (4th grade speaking and listening standard)

Ccss examples1
CCSS Examples professionals?

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (language standard, grade 1 )

Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.(Reading standard for Literature , grade 8)

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone (Reading standard for literature , grade 6)

Ccss examples2
CCSS Examples professionals?

Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation (Speaking and Listening, grade 7)

Ccss math examples
CCSS- Math Examples professionals?

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two

children and describe one child as taller/shorter.

(Math standard , grade K)

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.(Math standard, grade 1)

Ccss and students with special needs
CCSS and Students with Special Needs professionals?

Students with disabilities…must be challenged to excel within the general curriculum and be prepared for success in their post-school lives, including college and/or careers.

For students with special needs to meet standards they require
For Students with Special Needs to Meet Standards they Require

  • High-quality, evidence-based instruction

  • Accessible instructional materials

  • Embedded supports

    • Universal Design for Learning

    • Appropriate accommodations and adaptations

    • Assistive technology

    • Positive behavior supports

For students with special needs to meet standards they require1
For RequireStudents with Special Needs to Meet Standards they Require

  • Collaborative teaching

    • Interpersonal collaboration is a style for direct interaction between at least two co equal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a common goal -Friend 2007Friend and Cook, 2007

For students with special needs to meet standards they require2
For Students with Special Needs to Meet Standards they Require

  • Service delivery options

    • Dynamic service delivery- changing the frequency, location and time of service as student’s needs change.

Role of the slp
Role of the SLP Require

  • The SLP interfaces with the CCSS in two ways:

    • Through general education interventions like Response to Intervention

    • Providing educationally relevant services to students with IEPs.

What is the role of the slp
What is the Role of the SLP? Require

Develop deep knowledge of the content of the standards

Determine the foundational skills, or underpinnings necessary to achieve the standards

Develop IEP goals focused on each student’s need for support and instruction on foundational skills related to their communication disorder

What skills are required
What Skills Are Required? Require

Strong collaborative skills

Ability to interpret research to practice

Analytical skills

Subject area expertise (i.e.. Communication)

Start with the iep
Start with the IEP Require

  • Analyze the student’s assessment results in terms

    • Where is the student now?

    • Why are they experiencing the weaknesses diagnosed?

    • What do we want them to achieve this year?

Developing the iep
Developing the IEP Require

Recommend goals that support the “prerequisite” skills for the standard

Determine how progress will be measured

Determine what general education supports need to be in place for student achievement

Determine how services will be delivered dynamically, responding to the student’s progress throughout the school year

Discuss the roles and responsibilities of all team members necessary to facilitate student progress on the goal and on the standard.

Analyze the standard
Analyze the Standard Require

Look at the student’s specific areas of weakness.

Determine which standards are impacted by the deficit.

Analyze those standards to determine the underpinnings necessary for success on that standard.

Develop the IEP goals to support that standard and teach the underpinnings.

Let s practice
Let’ s Practice Require

  • Sally – 6th grade student with weaknesses in understanding and use of vocabulary

Sally s background information
Sally’s Background Information Require

  • Language skills are scattered

  • Age-level skills in syntax

  • Teacher reports

    • Masters vocabulary taught in class in a limited way

    • Difficulty with vocabulary understood by other students

    • Always completes class and homework assignments

    • Uses simple, concrete vocabulary in writing

    • Written answers to questions showed misunderstanding of terminology and misuse of new vocabulary from class

Ccss in language and vocabulary for grade 6
CCSS in RequireLanguage and Vocabulary for Grade 6

  • L.6.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

    • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.

    • Maintain consistency in style and tone.

  • L.6.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).

    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.

    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

  • L.6.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.

    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.

    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, thrifty).

Potential causes of her vocabulary difficulties
Potential Causes of Her Vocabulary Difficulties Require

Limited exposure to experiences that build base vocabulary

Limited direct instruction on the metalinguistic skills necessary for learning new vocabulary

Weak categorization and classification skills

Memory and processing issues

Hearing loss

Difficulties understanding figurative language

Difficulty with base words , prefixes and suffixes

Next steps for intervention
Next Steps for Intervention Require

  • SLP can pre-teach meanings of common prefixes in individual and/or small group sessions

  • Collaborate with teacher to identify vocabulary from curriculum to focus on that contained prefixes

  • Identify figurative language forms in literature

    • Pre-read selected sections with Sally and highlight figurative language

    • Provide in class lesson on figurative language and relation to text for class

  • Provide home practice materials for parents to reinforce vocabulary skills

Goals objectives
Goals? Objectives? Require

TIMEFRAME - By June 18, 2012

CONDITION - Given sixth grade curriculum related vocabulary

BEHAVIOR - Sally will explain the meanings of words containing common, grade-level prefixes and suffixes

CRITERIA - In 4/5 opportunities

TIMEFRAME - In 18 instructional weeks

CONDITION - Given sentences from fourth grade level texts

BEHAVIOR - Sally will explain the meanings of similes and


CRITERIA - with 80% accuracy

Let s breakdown a standard
Let’s Breakdown a Standard Require

Cards with different standards have been placed around the room.

Please form into small groups to discuss the standard

Choose a note taker and a speaker for your group.

Design a set of goals that would address the foundational skills necessary to achieve that standard.

Be prepared to share your goals with the full group.

Asha s ccss resources
ASHA’s CCSS Resources Require

Does ASHA offer Common Core information and support?

Webpage on CCSS

Journal articles

Leader and Perspectives articles


Technical assistance

What needs to be in place
What Needs to be in Place ? Require

  • SLPS need the following to successfully integrate CCSS into treatment:

    • Appropriate workload

    • Time for collaboration (joint planning periods)

    • Access to appropriate materials including text books, lesson plans, supplementary items

    • Training

    • Mentoring

    • Opportunity for engagement in RTI and other general education initiatives

Response to intervention
Response To Intervention Require

  • Core principles

  • Tiers of instruction

  • Case studies

  • Instructional considerations

  • Role of the SLP

What s your comfort level with rti
What’s Your Comfort Level with RTI? Require

Don’t forget: You can copy-paste this slide into other presentations, and move or resize the poll.

What are the components
What Are The Components? Require

RTI involves:

  • universal screening,

  • high-qualityevidence based instruction

  • interventions matched to student need

  • frequent measures of progress

  • use of child’s response data to make educational decisions.

Core principles of rti nasde 2005
Core Principles of RequireRtI(NASDE, 2005)

All students can learn with effective instruction utilizing scientifically research based instruction

intervene early

use a multi-tier model – intervention must be differentiated in nature and intensity

Core principles
Core Principles Require

  • We must use a problem-solving model based on data to make decisions within a multi-tier model

    • Is there a problem and what is it? (Identification)

    • Why is it happening? (Analysis)

    • What are we going to do about it? (Plan)

    • Did our intervention work? (Review and Revise)

Tier 1
Tier 1 Require

  • Primary instruction in the general education classroom.

  • High quality instruction

  • Assessment at least 3 times a year

  • Ongoing professional development

  • Team agreement to implement identified interventions.

Tier 2 problem solving with other resources and supp orts
Tier 2- RequireProblem Solving With Other Resources and Supports

Tier 2

Teacher consults with other professionals and/or parent(s).

Additional support needed by students struggling with learning

Frequent progress monitoring is expected.


Tier 2

Tier 3
Tier 3

  • Problem Solving with Student Improvement Team; Intensive Supplemental Interventions provided – needed by 5% of the students

Instructional considerations
Instructional Considerations


Direct teaching needs

How the student’s communication issues are addressed

How expectations for learning are stated

Consideration of accommodations and assistive technology supports

Instructional considerations1
Instructional Considerations

  • More learning opportunities

  • Multiple exposures to vocabulary and concepts

  • Issues w/ concrete to abstract

  • Multisensory

  • Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

Environmental considerations
Environmental Considerations

Visual cues, noise level, activity in the room, seating arrangement, proximity to


Learner considerations
Learner Considerations

  • Missing prior knowledge

  • Limited prerequisite vocabulary

  • Number of directions the student can handle at one time

  • Need for multiple repetitions

Curriculum considerations
Curriculum Considerations


Language load of material

Coverage time

Previous access to the general curriculum

Paradigm shift for slps
Paradigm Shift for SLPs

Expansion of the SLP’s assessment “tool kit” to include more instructionally relevant, contextually based procedures

Engagement in prevention and identification of at risk students as well as direct support and services

What s different
What’ s Different

Define “treatment” more globally- consultation, collaboration, team teaching, engaging parents, assistants, teachers in treatment process

What s different1
What’s Different?

Reallocation of time to offer prevention and early intervening services* in a more naturalistic setting with decrease in number of students requiring “direct” treatment, SLPs will have time to address those needs

Slp in tier 1
SLP in Tier 1

  • Conduct staff training on instructional models

  • Observe student/teacher interactions

  • Model instruction

  • Provide materials

  • Assist with screenings and progress monitoring

  • Conduct classroom-based lessons

Slp in tier 2
SLP in Tier 2

-Continue supports from Tier 1, with increased collaboration with and coordination of support services

  • Conduct short-term remediation with students in increasingly intensive levels, including small groups and individual work

Slp in tier 3
SLP in Tier 3

  • Interventions of increased intensity and /or frequency

  • Conduct dynamic assessment

  • Serve as team member considering child for special education

Role of slp
Role of SLP

Explaining the role that language plays in curriculum, assessment, and instruction, as a basis for appropriate program design

Explaining the interconnection between spoken and written language

Identifying and analyzing existing literature on scientifically based literacy assessment and intervention approaches

Assisting in the selection of screening measures

Role of slp1
Role of SLP

Identify systemic patterns of student need with respect to language skills

Select scientifically based literacy intervention

Conduct professional development on the language basis of literacy and learning

Interpret school’s progress in meeting the intervention needs of its students

Role of the slp1
Role of the SLP

Suggest strategies to the classroom teacher or to the parent that will make the difference for the student.

Provide short-term, focused, direct instruction, to help the student. This also provides valuable information to the educational team

Provide parents with support strategies and material

What are your thoughts
What Are Your Thoughts?

How much should SLPs do before considering making a recommendation of MDE?

Other contemporary issues
Other Contemporary Issues

Realignment of Roles and responsibilities of SLPs in schools

Dynamic service delivery
Dynamic Service Delivery

dy·nam·ic   /daɪˈnæmɪk/. pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm.

Dynamic service delivery1
Dynamic Service Delivery

  • Service Delivery is becoming a dynamic

    process in terms of

    • Frequency

    • Duration

    • Location

      All three of these should change throughout the course of treatment based on student progress and need. Evidence based practice should also be foundation to decision making.

Use of technology
Use of Technology

Use of technology1
Use of Technology

Mobile Devices,

Applications (APPs),




Cloud technology

Personal websites





Online projects

Geographic information systems

Social networks

Use of technology2
Use of Technology

  • Collect data

  • Record conversational samples

  • Motivate and engage students

  • Provide augmentative assistive for communication

  • Offers another modality for assessing, treating and engaging students

Use of technology3
Use of Technology



  • Improved communication

  • Cost and time saving

  • Adaptability

  • Motivating

  • Dynamic

  • Models appropriate use of technology

  • Accesses monumental amounts of information


  • Initial cost

  • Connectivity/Security limitations

  • Finding the “right” technology

  • Distractibility

  • Need for ongoing training

  • How shall we respond to these issues
    How Shall we Respond to these Issues?

    Demonstrate strong leadership with and without the “official” titles

    Form partnerships

    Innovate with procedures, policies and service delivery

    Change roles and responsibilities

    Control our destiny through involvement in local, stateand federal organizations.

    How do we respond
    How Do We Respond?

    Providing input whenever possible

    Creating new partnerships

    Participating in the process



    How do we need to change
    How do we need to change

    You are not “JUST” the building SLP

    You are an educational leader who is engaged in shaping services for students with communication disorders

    You are an “expert” with much to offer students, staff, parents and community

    Contemporary issues in schools

    References and resources
    References and Resources

    • Kovaleski, J., & Prasse, D. P. (2004, February). Response to instruction in the identification of

      learning disabilities: A guide for school teams. Communiqué, 32(5), insert. Available:

    • Klinger, J. & Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural considerations with Response to Intervention models.

      Reading Research Quarterly. 41/1, 108-117.

    References and resources1
    References and Resources

    Kratcoski, A. M. (1998). Guidelines for using portfolios in assessment and evaluation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 29, 3–10

    Troia, G. A. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention: Roles for speech-language pathologists in the prevention and identification of learning disabilities. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 106–119.

    References and resources2
    References and Resources

    Montgomery, Judy K.Models of RTI for SLPs: Is This What We Have Been Waiting for?Perspectives on Language Learning and Education 2008 15: 13-21

    Peña, E., Quinn, R., & Iglesias, A. (1992). The application of dynamic methods to language assessment: A nonbiased procedure. The Journal of Special Education, 26, 269–280.

    References and resources3
    References and Resources

    • Responsiveness to Intervention: New Roles for Speech-Language Pathologists

      By Barbara J. Ehren, EdD, CCC-SLP,Judy Montgomery, PhD, CCC-SLP, Judy Rudebusch, EdD, CCC-SLP, and Kathleen Whitmire, PhD, CCC-SLP

      American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    References and resources4
    References and Resources

    Staskowski, M., & Rivera, E. A. (2005). Speech-language pathologists' involvement in responsiveness to intervention activities: A complement to curriculum-relevant practice. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 132–147.

    Tomblin, J. B., Zhang, X., Buckwalter, P., & O'Brien, M. (2003). The stability of primary language disorder: Four years after kindergarten diagnosis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 1283–1296.[

    References and resources5
    References and Resources

    • Ukrainetz, Teresa A.The Implications of RTI and EBP for SLPs: Commentary on L. M. JusticeLang Speech Hear ServSch 2006 37: 298-303

    • Implementing IDEA 2004 Part I: Conducting Educationally Relevant Evaluations, Technical Assistance for Speech-Language Pathologists

      (ASHA product)

    References and resources6
    References and Resources

    Ukrainetz, T. A., & Fresquez, E. F. (2003). What isn't language? A qualitative study of the role of the school speech-language pathologist. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 284–298

    Ukrainetz, T. A., & Trujillo, A. (1999). "You know, I just don't know what else you'd do?" Five SLPs' perspectives on students's literature in speech-language intervention. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 26, 35–48.

    References and resources7
    References and Resources

    • National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (2005). Response to intervention:

      Policy considerations and implementation. Available from

    • Learning Disabilities Association of America. Responsiveness to Intervention: Questions PARENTS Must Ask. May 2006. Available at

    Resources and references
    Resources and References

    10 Tips for Teaching Grammar According to the Common Core by Lauren Davis.

    Ehren, B. J. , Blosser, J. , Roth, F. P. , Paul, D. R.  & Nelson, N. W. (2012, April 03). Core Commitment. The ASHA Leader.

    Blosser, J. , Roth, F. P. , Paul, D. R. , Ehren, B. J. , Nelson, N. W.  & Sturm, J. M. (2012, August 28). Integrating the Core. The ASHA Leader.

    Core State Standards Initiative