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Chapter 15. Expectorants and Antitussive Agents. Expectorants and Antitussive Agents. Drugs that aid in the expectoration (removal) of mucus Reduce the viscosity of secretions Stimulate the flow of respiratory secretions. Secretions.

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Chapter 15 l.jpg

Chapter 15

Expectorants and Antitussive Agents


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Expectorants and Antitussive Agents

  • Drugs that aid in the expectoration (removal) of mucus

  • Reduce the viscosity of secretions

  • Stimulate the flow of respiratory secretions

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Secretions

  • By loosening and thinning sputum and bronchial secretions, the tendency to cough is indirectly diminished.

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Cough Relief

  • Relief of nonproductive coughs:

    • Pertussis

    • Common cold

    • Bronchitis

    • Laryngitis

    • Sinusitis

    • Influenza

    • Pharyngitis

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Expectorants: Side Effects

  • Common side effects

    • Guaifenesin

      • Nausea, vomiting

      • Gastric irritation

    • Terpin hydrate

      • Gastric upset (elixir has high alcohol content)

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Expectorants: Nursing Implications

  • Use with caution.

    • Elderly

  • Encourage client to drink fluids.

  • Monitor for therapeutic effects.

  • Report a fever lasting longer than a week.

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Antitussives

  • Drugs used to control coughing

    • Opioids and nonopioids

    • Narcotics

      • Used for nonproductivecoughs

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Opioid Antitussives

  • Suppress the cough reflex by direct action on the cough center in the medulla

    • Example: codeine + guiafenesin = Robitussin AC

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Non-narcotic Antitussives

  • Dextromethorphan

    • Suppresses the cough reflex by direct action on the cough center in the medulla; a chemical derivative of the opiate narcotics

  • Result: diminished cough

  • Produces no respiratory depression, analgesia, or dependence

  • Example: Robitussin-DM

(continues)

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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(continued)

Non-narcotic Antitussives

  • Benzonatate

    • A derivative of procaine (local anesthetic action); impairs the sensation of the stretch receptors in the respiratory tract

    • Example

      • Tessalon

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Antitussive Agents: Side Effects

  • Benzonatate

    • Dizziness, headache, sedation

  • Dextromethorphan

    • Dizziness, drowsiness, nausea

  • Opioids

    • Sedation, nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, constipation

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Antitussive Agents: Nursing Interventions

  • Perform respiratory assessment.

  • Instruct clients to:

    • Avoid driving or operating heavy equipment

    • Not drink liquids for 30 to 35 minutes after taking a cough syrup or using a cough lozenge

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.


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Antitussive Agents: Client Teaching

  • Report any of the following symptoms to the health care professional:

    • Cough that lasts more than 2 weeks

    • A persistent headache

    • Fever

    • Rash

Copyright 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.