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Chapter 15

Chapter 15. Nonbank Thrift Institutions: Savings & Loans, Savings Banks, Credit Unions, and Money Market Funds. To see the significant roles that thrift institutions play in the functioning of a modern economy and financial system.

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Chapter 15

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  1. Chapter 15 Nonbank Thrift Institutions:Savings & Loans, Savings Banks, Credit Unions, and Money Market Funds

  2. To see the significant roles that thrift institutions play in the functioning of a modern economy and financial system. To learn about the types of services that thrift institutions offer to the public and who their principal competitors are. To understand the principal similarities and differences among the major types of thrift institutions.  Learning Objectives 

  3. Nonbank financial institutions play a vital role in the flow of money and credit within the financial system, especially the home mortgage market and the market for personal savings. Recently however, both bank and nonbank financial institutions are “converging” in terms of the services they offer and the markets they serve. Introduction

  4. Savings and loan associations (S&Ls) are among the largest of all thrift institutions, accepting deposits and extending loans and other services primarily to household customers. S&Ls emphasize longer-term loans, especially mortgage loans. Savings and Loan Associations

  5. S&Ls began essentially as a single-product industry in the early 19th century, accepting savings deposits from middle-income individuals and families and lending those funds to home buyers. Later, competition from other financial institutions, deregulation, and many failures, forced S&Ls to diversify their operations and aggressively solicit new customers. Savings and Loan Associations

  6. Savings and Loan Associations

  7. Savings and Loan Associations

  8. The size of the savings industry peaked in 1988, when total financial assets reached $1,640 billion. The sharp decline that followed was the result of large numbers of failures and the conversion of some S&Ls into other kinds of financial institutions, most notably commercial banks and savings banks. Savings and Loan Associations

  9. One primary cause for the low profitability of S&Ls during the 1980s and 1990s was that many S&L assets (fixed-rate mortgage loans) were interest-rate insensitive while most of their liabilities (deposits) were highly sensitive to interest rates. So, during periods of rapidly rising market interest rates, the industry’s net interest margin were often severely squeezed. Savings and Loan Associations

  10. S&Ls need sound diversification decisions, carefully managed loan portfolios, risk management, and further relaxation of government regulations. Today, more aggressive S&Ls are branching out in at least three different directions – real estate models, family financial centers, and diversified models. Savings and Loan Associations

  11. Savings banks began in Scotland in the early 19th century, and then took root in the U.S. about 150 years ago to meet the needs of the small saver. Like S&Ls, they play an active role in the residential mortgage market. However, they are more diversified in their investments, purchasing corporate bonds and common stock, making consumer loans, and investing in commercial mortgages. Savings Banks

  12. The number of savings banks operating today is small – at most a few hundreds. They are scattered throughout the United States. Massachusetts leads the list, followed by New York. The distinction among S&Ls, savings banks, and commercial banks is becoming blurred, especially because they are readily convertible from one form to another. Savings Banks

  13. The savings bank industry faces a number of problems that will significantly affect its future as a conduit for savings and investment. In particular, savings banks have inflexible asset structures and face competition from other financial institutions. Their future growth depends on their ability to gain the necessary changes in government regulations to allow them to respond to changing financial market conditions. Savings Banks

  14. Credit unions are cooperative, self-help associations of individuals, and savings deposits and loans are offered only to members of each association. Credit unions came to the U.S. in 1909, and their long-run survival stems mainly from their being able to offer low loan rates and high deposit interest rates and from their relatively low operating costs. Credit Unions

  15. Credit unions are organized around a common affiliation or bond among their members. Most members work for the same employer, or for one of a group of related employers. There is a strong shift today toward fewer, but larger, credit unions. The decline is due primarily to mergers, failures, and a structural shift in the U.S. economy from manufacturing industries toward more service industries. Credit Unions

  16. Credit Union Statistics Source: Credit Union National Association, Credit Union Report 2002, World Council of Credit Unions, Inc., 2002 Statistical Report; and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Flow of Funds Accounts.

  17. U.S. credit unions are under intense pressure to develop new services and penetrate new markets due to increasing competition from other financial institutions and a decline in the demand for their historically most important credit service – automobile loans. However, the industry has repeatedly shown its capacity for service innovation and its ability to compete successfully for both consumer loans and savings accounts. Credit Unions

  18. Credit Unions

  19. In 1972, the first money market mutual fund – a financial intermediary pooling the savings of individuals and businesses and investing those monies in short-term, high-quality money market instruments – opened for business. The fund offered share accounts whose yields reflect prevailing money market rates. In contrast, the interest rates on most bank deposits were then restrained by government regulation. Money Market Funds

  20. Money Market Funds Money Market Funds: Assets Held and Total Shares Outstanding, 1980–2004* ($ Billions) Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Flow of Funds Accounts; Financial Assets and Liabilities, selected issues. *2004 figures are for first quarter of the year.

  21. On the whole, money market funds hold high-quality assets. The short maturity of the assets results in a highly liquid security portfolio that can be adjusted quickly to suit changing market conditions. They are mostly “no load” funds – there is no commission charge for opening an account, purchasing more shares, or redeeming shares. The accounts can be accessed easily too. Money Market Funds

  22. Money Market Funds An Example of Typical Money Market Fund Information Reported Daily by Security Brokers, Dealers, and in Daily Newspapers

  23. Today, money market funds serve as cash-management vehicles where market rates can be earned on funds used for daily transactions; tax-sheltering vehicles (when tax-exempt funds are chosen); a temporary repository for liquid funds; and a safety haven for savings. Money Market Funds

  24. However, note that money market fund share accounts are not government insured. The differential between the yield on the accounts and the rate of return on money market deposits at banks has also narrowed in recent years. The money market fund industry has recently shown itself to be vulnerable to low market interest rates too. Money Market Funds

  25. Credit Union National Association at www.cuna.org Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation at www.fdic.gov Investment Company Institute at http://www.iii.org Money Market Funds at www.encyclopedia.com Markets on the Net

  26. National Credit Union Administration at www.ncua.gov Office of Thrift Supervision at www.ots.treas.gov Savings and Loan Industry at www.encyclopedia.com U.S. Treasury Department at www.treasury.gov/press/releases/report3070.htm Markets on the Net

  27. World Council of Credit Unions at www.woccu.org Markets on the Net

  28. Introduction to Thrift Institutions Savings and Loan Associations Origins of S&Ls How Funds Are Raised and Allocated Trends in Revenues and Costs Possible Ways to Strengthen the S&L Industry in the Future Chapter Review

  29. Savings Banks Number and Distribution How Funds Are Raised and Allocated Current Trends and Future Problems Credit Unions Credit Union Membership Size of Credit Unions New Services Offered A Strong Competitive Force Chapter Review

  30. Money Market Funds Chapter Review

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