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Essential Questions • What factors contributed to the Europeans entrance into their age of discovery and expansion? • What were the general consequences of European expansion?
Technology • Compass (China) • Astrolabe (Arabs) – latitude/longitude • Triangle-shaped sails (Arabs) - faster
Reasons for Expansion • Three G’s • Gold (Economic) – Wealth; markets in Asia (spices) • Glory (Political)– Power • Strong monarchies (Portugal, Spain, France, England) • Humanism/Renaissance • God – (Religious) Christianity
Portuguese • Prince Henry the Navigator – established a school for sailors • Bartholomew Diaz – 1487, Cape of Good Hope in S. Africa • Vasco da Gama – 1498, around Africa to India
Spanish • Columbus (October 12,1492) • Ferdinand and Isabella – Spain • Need a western route to Asia – why? • San Salvador (Bahamas) • Called natives “Indians” • Made 3 more trips; never knew he had discovered a new continent • Magellan • Circumnavigated the globe – first complete western water route to Asia • He died in the Philippines
Dividing the New World 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas splits new territory • Brazil = Portuguese • Rest of South America = Spanish
Spanish Empire • Columbian Exchange • Europe Received – corn, cocoa, potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans • Americas Received – horses, cows, pigs, sugar; ultimately disease • Conquistadors • Cortes – conquered Aztecs in Mexico • Pizarro – conquered Incas in Peru
European Rivals • Dutch (Netherlands) • New Netherlands (NY) • Dutch East India Company • French • Looked for the Northwest Passage through America • Champlain (Quebec) • Fur trade w/Indians • English • 1607 -Jamestown – John Smith – 1st perm. English settlement • Oldest settlement? (1565)
Slave Trade • Slavery not new to Africa • Sent to Middle East for domestic work • Sugarcane (Portuguese) • Changed slavery for Europeans • Plantations in Caribbean and Brazil • African slave traders controlled slave trade • Middle Passage • Destroyed traditional African societies as demand for slaves increased
Results of Expansion • Great wealth for European nations – greed and power • Rivalries developed over colonies • Increased European trade with Asia • Colonization of the Americas • Destruction of Native populations (disease, superior technology) • Dramatic increase in the slave trade • African civilizations destroyed • New products (Columbian Exchange)