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Byzantine & Muslim empires. Chapter 10. The Byzantine Empire. OBJECTIVES: Discover how Constantinople became so powerful Discover the achievements of the age of Justinian. Byzantine Empire (Constantine). Greek Fire Why Constantinople was located where it was (trade center)

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Byzantine & Muslim empires

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    1. Byzantine & Muslim empires Chapter 10

    2. The Byzantine Empire • OBJECTIVES: • Discover how Constantinople became so powerful • Discover the achievements of the age of Justinian

    3. Byzantine Empire (Constantine) • Greek Fire • Why Constantinople was located where it was (trade center) • Constantine's capital • Good Emperors account for some of the success • Medieval times (period of time following the fall of the western half of the Roman empire, 476 A.D. to about 1500 A.D.)

    4. Age of Justinian • As Rome fell, Constantinople got stronger • In a line of many great rulers, Justinian was one of the greatest • Born poor, it gave him the ability to listen to all people • Justinian’s code

    5. Byzantine Culture • Kept copies of all ancient Greek and Roman works, mixed with Christian ideas it made Constantinople a very knowledge rich area • When the empire declined the documents were taken to Italy and helped start the renaissance

    6. The later Years of the Empire • The Great Schism (split) • Second Golden age • The fall (Attacks from the North “Russians” the West “Christian Crusaders” and the East “Turks and Muslims”) • Constantinople fell and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire

    7. Check For Understanding • Pg 289 • 1 A/B • 2 A/B • 3 A/B

    8. Start of Islam • The Prophet Muhammad • Messenger to the people • Started in the Arabian Peninsula • Taught to worship 1 God (Poly or Mono?) • After Muhammad’s death the religion spread

    9. Arabian Peninsula • Life Support • Bedouins (nomadic desert people) • Became guides for Caravans

    10. MECCA • Was an important trading post turned city • People travelled from the Mecca to other places

    11. Muhammad • Travelling Merchant trader • Went to the mountains to pray alone • At age 40 God spoke to him through an angel • Followers of Muhammad became known as Muslims • Muslims religion or a person who “submits” became known as Islam • People go to the Mecca to pray to Kaaba

    12. Hijra • Hijra mean “the migration” • The city of Yathrib changed to Medina “city of the prophet” • Became year 1 on the Muslin calendar

    13. Muslim Beliefs • Muezzin (myooez in) • Pray 5 times a day to Allah • Mosque • There is only one God • They kneel and face toward the Mecca

    14. The 5 Pillars of Islam

    15. The Quran • Islamic Bible • Lists Muhammad’s conversations with God • Includes stories, promises, warnings, and instructions • The respect Jews and Christians as “people of the book”

    16. Role of Women • Before Islam • Quran Taught: • Women are spiritually equal • Women could own or inherit property • Women could be educated • Women would not be forced to marry • Women could divorce

    17. Muslim Split • The Muslim leader Uthman was assassinated and a debate over who would lead ensued • 2 new groups • Shiites- felt the new leader should be a direct descendent of Muhammad • Sunnis- any truly religious man who followed Muhammad could be the leader (85% of Muslims are Sunnis)

    18. Check For Understanding • 1. A/B • 2. A/B/C

    19. Muslim Civilization • Within 150 years of Muhammad's death, his new religion had spread many miles all directions • How? • Arabic traders • Arab armies (failed at attacking Constantinople) but converted most of the Mediterranean sea coast to Islam. • Their advancement stopped when they reached France and were stopped by the European armies.

    20. Reasons for Success • Lack of a powerful empire to stop them • Arab peoples began to work together • Allowed people to have what ever beliefs they wanted (though there were rules)

    21. The Golden Age • From 800 to 1000 there were great advances in mathematics, science, architecture, and lasting literature. • Why so much success? • Muslim Caliphs- Muslim rulers during this time period (successors to Muhammad) • Muslim Empire capital was Baghdad, easily accessible by all sorts of routes. • This led to a booming trading atmosphere with a multitude of products

    22. The Golden Age • Al Khwarizmi- wrote a book on arithmetic, and also helped invent algebra • Sufis – Muslims who thought they could draw closer to God through fasting, prayer, and the simple life

    23. Ottoman Empire • 1200’s, the last Caliph was killed by the Mongols(Central Asian People) • Mongols conquered the Middle East and also moved into the Byzantine and took over as well • Sultan (ruler of Ottoman Empire) • Southern Europe, The Middle East, North Africa were all controlled by the Sultan • Rose to power using Religious and Cultural tolerance

    24. Re-Read Chapter 10!!!!