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Economical Realism. Avril Styrman. Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology. Economical Realism. The Role of Economy in Ontology?. Economy. P rune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science. Economy. Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

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Economical realism

Economical Realism

Avril Styrman


Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology




Economy
Economy

  • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science


Economy1
Economy

  • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

  • Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied


Economy2
Economy

  • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

  • Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied

  • Pruning out the unnecessary metaphysics and identifying the necessary metaphysics has the possibility to accelerate the progress of science


Economy3
Economy

  • What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied?


Economy4
Economy

  • What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied?

  • The result is uncriticized metaphysics that runs loose


Economy5
Economy

  • “Find a scientific man who proposes to get along without any metaphysics... and you have found one whose doctrines are thoroughly vitiated by the crude and uncriticizedmetaphysics with which they are packed… Every man of us has a metaphysics, and has to have one; and it will influence his life greatly. Far better, then, that that metaphysics should be criticized and not be allowed to run loose.” Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Works of Charles Sanders Peirce 1.129


Economy6
Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing


Economy7
Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?


Economy8
Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?

  • The simplest interpretation is the best


Economy9
Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?

  • The simplest interpretation is the best

  • Economy might be the only available objective judge, but only when A and B explain exactly the same thing


Economy10
Economy

  • The importance of economy should not be underestimated, because there exists a jungle of interpretations in science, that effectively muddifies science



Realism1
Realism

  • Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations


Realism2
Realism

  • Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations

  • Two main alternatives are the two competing groups of interrelated interpretations: realism and solipsism


Realism3
Realism

  • Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism


Realism4
Realism

  • Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism

  • Example 2: economy judging between a realist interpretation and a solipsist intepretation in physics







Realism or solipsism
Realism or Solipsism?

The solipsist must in any case postulate a dichotomy that is operationally identical to ontological realism


Realism or solipsism1
Realism or Solipsism?

Economy favours realism because solipsism is bothered with an unnecessary appendix: the universal mind


Realism or solipsism2
Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?


Realism or solipsism3
Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  • Because the lack of economy is disastrous


Realism or solipsism4
Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  • Because the lack of economy is disastrous

  • “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12


Realism or solipsism5
Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  • Because the lack of economy is disastrous

  • “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12

  • “…far happier they than such as wallow helplessly in a rich mud of conceptions” Charles Sanders Peirce, How to Make Our Ideas Clear, 1878



Realism vs solipsism in physics1
Realism vs. Solipsism in Physics

  • An example where the measurement results can be given a realist and a solipsist interpretation


Locality and nonlocality
Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?


Locality and nonlocality1
Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri


Locality and nonlocality2
Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

    The speed of light: local Universe


Locality and nonlocality3
Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

    The speed of light: local Universe

    Faster than light: nonlocal Universe


Locality and nonlocality4
Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

    The speed of light: local Universe

    Faster than light: nonlocal Universe

    Instantaneous: nonlocal Universe



Nonlocality tests1
Nonlocality Tests

  • J.A.W. van Houwelingen N. Gisin D. Salart, A. Baas and H. Zbinden. Spacelike separation in a Bell test assuming gravitationally induced collapses. Physical Review Letters, 100, 2008.

  • P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental tests of local realistic theories via Bell’s theorem. Physical Review Letters, 47: 460–463, 1981.

  • P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental realisation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohmgedankenexperiment: a new violation of Bell’s inequalities. Physical Review Letters, 49: 91–94, 1982.


Nonlocality tests2
Nonlocality Tests

  • Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source.


Nonlocality tests3
Nonlocality Tests

  • Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source.

  • The source is manipulated and the particles start moving towards opposite directions


Nonlocality tests4
Nonlocality Tests

  • Particles a and b both can be measured to have some spin values: spin-up xor spin-down


Nonlocality tests5
Nonlocality Tests

  • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa:

    a-up & b-down

    a-down & b-up


Nonlocality tests6
Nonlocality Tests

  • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa:

    a-up & b-down a-up b-down

    a-down & b-up b-up -down


Nonlocality tests7
Nonlocality Tests

  • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa:

    a-up & b-down no b-up & a-up

    a-down & b-up no a-down & b-down


Nonlocality tests8
Nonlocality Tests

  • How should the correlation be interpreted?


Nonlocality tests9
Nonlocality Tests

  • How should the correlation be interpreted?

  • The realist and the solipsist interpretations


The realist interpretation
The Realist Interpretation

  • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it


The realist interpretation1
The Realist Interpretation

  • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it

  • They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after


The realist interpretation2
The Realist Interpretation

  • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it

  • They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after

  • No superluminal influence is required, and thus locality is not threatened



The solipsist interpretation1
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand


The solipsist interpretation2
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand

  • Do not get surprised: it is solipsism!


The solipsist interpretation3
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand

  • Do not get surprised: it is solipsism!

  • Still strongly present in physics


The solipsist interpretation4
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • aand b do not have definite states at all before the measurement


The solipsist interpretation5
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • aand b do not have definite states at all before the measurement

  • The measurement itself determines the states of a and b


The solipsist interpretation6
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • aand b do not have definite states at all before the measurement

  • The measurement itself determines the states of a and b

  • They are in definite states only after the measurement


The solipsist interpretation7
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Before the measurement a and bare in a superposition:

    <b-up&a-down | a-up&b-down>


The solipsist interpretation8
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Before the measurement a and bare in a superposition:

    <b-up&a-down | a-up&b-down>

  • The superposition contains both possibilities


The solipsist interpretation9
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Before the measurement a and bare in a superposition:

    <b-up&a-down | a-up&b-down>

  • The superposition contains both possibilities

  • After the measurement they are either in the state b-up&a-down xor in a-up&b-down, but no longer in a superposition


The solipsist interpretation10
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Because the measurement of a determines the state of bfaster than light travels between a and b, superluminal or instantaneous influences are required. If you believe in the superposition idea, then nonlocality is the conclusion.

    Earth a- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - b Alpha Centauri


The solipsist interpretation11
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Superluminal and/or instantaneous influences are compatible with monism: all is together in some sense

    Earth a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - b Alpha Centauri

    ab


Speculation
Speculation

  • “The particles communicate faster than light.” Tim Maudlin. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002, p2.

  • “A pair of photons created together in the entangled state and allowed to separate remain, no matter how great the separation, causally connected to one another.” Ibid., p162.

  • “Two particles, having interacted in the past, form an inseparable whole, even if at present they are far apart.” Giuliano Toraldo Di Francia. A world of individual objects? In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press, p21–29, 1988, p28.


Speculation1
Speculation

  • “When a sparrow falls in Yougoslavia it has effects in the New Brunswick and on Saturn and in the most distant galaxy. Tim Maudlin. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002, p22.

  • “Since any particle has certainly interacted with other particles in the past, the world turns out to be nonseparableinto individual and independent objects.” Giuliano Toraldo Di Francia. A world of individual objects? In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press, p21–29, 1988, p28.


Speculation2
Speculation

  • The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s catparadox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent


Speculation3
Speculation

  • The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent

  • This is very near to solipsism, and against ontological realism where properties are mind-independent


Speculation4
Speculation

  • The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent

  • The Schrödinger’s cat paradox can be resolved with other interpretations such as with the many minds/worlds interpretation, where every perception makes the Universe branch based on the superposition <dead | alive>


The solipsist interpretation12
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Might sound funny but these interpretations are out there


The solipsist interpretation13
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific


The solipsist interpretation14
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

  • The importance of the measurement is over-propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation


The solipsist interpretation15
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

  • The importance of the measurement is over-propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation

  • The unmeasurable conclusions are against the original postulate of extreme empiricism


The solipsist interpretation16
The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

  • The importance of the measurement is over-propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation

  • The unmeasurable conclusions are against the original postulate of extreme empiricism

  • This is unnoticed because metaphysics is denied to exist by the extreme empiricist


Solipsism or realism
Solipsism or Realism?

  • Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.


Solipsism or realism1
Solipsism or Realism?

  • Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.

  • Economy favours the realist interpretation: it is a simpler explanation of the measurement results


Solipsism or realism2
Solipsism or Realism?

  • Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.

  • Economy favours the realist interpretation: it is a simpler explanation of the measurement results

    • Solipsism unnecessarily and effectively muddifies the wells of discourse


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Economical realism is a good way to go. It makes the total science a tighter package than earlier. Accept the necessary part of metaphysics and let economy be the judge.


Conclusions1
Conclusions

  • Economical realism is a good way to go. It makes the total science a tighter package than earlier. Accept the necessary part of metaphysics and let economy be the judge.

  • A case where the utility of philosophy can be easily explained


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