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Economical Realism

Economical Realism

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Economical Realism

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  1. Economical Realism Avril Styrman

  2. Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology

  3. Economical Realism

  4. The Role of Economy in Ontology?

  5. Economy • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

  6. Economy • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science • Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied

  7. Economy • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science • Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied • Pruning out the unnecessary metaphysics and identifying the necessary metaphysics has the possibility to accelerate the progress of science

  8. Economy • What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied?

  9. Economy • What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied? • The result is uncriticized metaphysics that runs loose

  10. Economy • “Find a scientific man who proposes to get along without any metaphysics... and you have found one whose doctrines are thoroughly vitiated by the crude and uncriticizedmetaphysics with which they are packed… Every man of us has a metaphysics, and has to have one; and it will influence his life greatly. Far better, then, that that metaphysics should be criticized and not be allowed to run loose.” Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Works of Charles Sanders Peirce 1.129

  11. Economy • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  12. Economy • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?

  13. Economy • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing • What is the measure of fitness between A and B? • The simplest interpretation is the best

  14. Economy • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing • What is the measure of fitness between A and B? • The simplest interpretation is the best • Economy might be the only available objective judge, but only when A and B explain exactly the same thing

  15. Economy • The importance of economy should not be underestimated, because there exists a jungle of interpretations in science, that effectively muddifies science

  16. Realism

  17. Realism • Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations

  18. Realism • Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations • Two main alternatives are the two competing groups of interrelated interpretations: realism and solipsism

  19. Realism • Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism

  20. Realism • Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism • Example 2: economy judging between a realist interpretation and a solipsist intepretation in physics

  21. Ontological Realism

  22. Ontological Realism

  23. Solipsism

  24. Solipsism

  25. Solipsism

  26. Realism or Solipsism? The solipsist must in any case postulate a dichotomy that is operationally identical to ontological realism

  27. Realism or Solipsism? Economy favours realism because solipsism is bothered with an unnecessary appendix: the universal mind

  28. Realism or Solipsism? • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  29. Realism or Solipsism? • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it? • Because the lack of economy is disastrous

  30. Realism or Solipsism? • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it? • Because the lack of economy is disastrous • “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12

  31. Realism or Solipsism? • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it? • Because the lack of economy is disastrous • “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12 • “…far happier they than such as wallow helplessly in a rich mud of conceptions” Charles Sanders Peirce, How to Make Our Ideas Clear, 1878

  32. Realism vs. Solipsism in Physics

  33. Realism vs. Solipsism in Physics • An example where the measurement results can be given a realist and a solipsist interpretation

  34. Locality and Nonlocality • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

  35. Locality and Nonlocality • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

  36. Locality and Nonlocality • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri The speed of light: local Universe

  37. Locality and Nonlocality • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri The speed of light: local Universe Faster than light: nonlocal Universe

  38. Locality and Nonlocality • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars? Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri The speed of light: local Universe Faster than light: nonlocal Universe Instantaneous: nonlocal Universe

  39. Nonlocality Tests

  40. Nonlocality Tests • J.A.W. van Houwelingen N. Gisin D. Salart, A. Baas and H. Zbinden. Spacelike separation in a Bell test assuming gravitationally induced collapses. Physical Review Letters, 100, 2008. • P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental tests of local realistic theories via Bell’s theorem. Physical Review Letters, 47: 460–463, 1981. • P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental realisation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohmgedankenexperiment: a new violation of Bell’s inequalities. Physical Review Letters, 49: 91–94, 1982.

  41. Nonlocality Tests • Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source.

  42. Nonlocality Tests • Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source. • The source is manipulated and the particles start moving towards opposite directions

  43. Nonlocality Tests • Particles a and b both can be measured to have some spin values: spin-up xor spin-down

  44. Nonlocality Tests • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa: a-up & b-down a-down & b-up

  45. Nonlocality Tests • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa: a-up & b-down a-up b-down a-down & b-up b-up -down

  46. Nonlocality Tests • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa: a-up & b-down no b-up & a-up a-down & b-up no a-down & b-down

  47. Nonlocality Tests • How should the correlation be interpreted?

  48. Nonlocality Tests • How should the correlation be interpreted? • The realist and the solipsist interpretations

  49. The Realist Interpretation • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it

  50. The Realist Interpretation • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it • They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after