Carbon Compounds Section 2-3 Pages 44-48
Chemistry of Carbon • Carbon atoms have 4 electrons able to form bonds with other atoms • Can bond with many elements • Most common elements of life: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur • CHNOPS
Macromolecules • Macromolecules—formed by joining smaller molecules together • Monomer—smaller units • Polymer—larger unit • Monomers are linked together forming a polymer • The monomers may be identical or different
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates—compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ration of 1:2:1. • Breakdown of sugars supplies immediate energy for all cell activities • Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. • Monomer—single sugar molecules called monosaccharides. • Polymer—polysaccharide: in animals is called glycogen and in plants it is called cellulose
Lipids • Composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms • Common categories—fats, oils, and waxes • Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. • Saturated—contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms • Unsaturated—contain at least one double bond • Monomer—fatty acids and glycerol
Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids—macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. • Nucleic acid—polymer • Monomer—nucleotides • Nucleotide—3 parts: 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base • Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information • 2 kinds: RNA and DNA
Proteins • Macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • Monomers—amino acids • More than 20 different amino acids are found in nature. • Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Some are used to form bones and muscles. Others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.
Picture Credits • http://www.free-ed.net/sweethaven/MedTech/GenChem/803fig0308.jpg • http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/modules/carbon/ethane2b.gif • http://www.webelements.com/webelements/compounds/media/C/C1F4-75730.jpg • http://tang.bmrb.wisc.edu/servlet_data/molgrap/pic/vr/1vre_xl.gif • http://www.physiciansselect.com/carbohydrateblocker.gif • http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/BacterialStructure/BactStructImages/LipidBilayer.JPG • http://chemistry.gsu.edu/glactone/PDB/Proteins/NucProt/1lmb.gif • http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/dna-base-pairings.gif • http://www.langara.bc.ca/biology/mario/Assets/aminoAcidStruc.jpg • http://www.nature.com/horizon/livingfrontier/background/images/fat_f2.jpg