Carbon Compounds. Section 2.3. Carbon Compounds. Organic Compounds. All compounds are either organic , containing carbon bonded to hydrogen and oxygen, or inorganic . The chemistry of carbon is the chemistry of life. Carbon Bonding:. Carbon has four valence electrons
Carbon Compounds Section 2.3
Organic Compounds • All compounds are either organic, containing carbonbonded to hydrogen and oxygen, or inorganic. • The chemistry of carbon is the chemistry of life.
Carbon Bonding: • Carbon has four valence electrons • Needs eight electrons to be stable • Carbon readily forms four covalent bonds with other atoms, including carbon
Carbon Bonding • Carbon can form straight chains, branched chains, or rings • Leading to a great variety of organic compounds
Large Carbon Molecules: • In many carbon compounds, the molecules are built up from smaller, simpler molecules known as monomers. • Monomers can bind to one another to form complex molecules known as polymers. • Large polymers are also called macromolecules • The process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks - polymerization
Biological Reactions • Wateris the most important inorganiccompound in the body and it participates in two biological reactions: • Hydrolysis • Dehydration Synthesis
Hydrolysis • Breaking down polymers by adding a water molecule.
Hydrolysis • Breaking down polymers by adding a water molecule. C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Dehydration Synthesis • Build up large molecules by releasinga molecule of water.
Dehydration Synthesis • Build up large molecules by releasinga molecule of water. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C12H22O11 + H2O
Molecules of Life • The four main classes of organic compounds essential to all living things are made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygenatoms, but in different ratios giving them different properties.
Carbohydrates: • Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with H to O in a 2:1 ratio • Monosaccharides are a single sugar - monomer • Source of energy • Can be in straight or ringform • -oseending for sugars Glucose (C6H12O6) Ribose (C5H10O5)
Carbohydrates: • Glucose, galactose, and fructose all have the same molecular formula but differ in the arrangement of atoms = isomers • Molecular formula = C6H12O6 (hexoses) C5H10O5 (pentoses)
Carbohydrates • Disaccharides are double sugars • Two monosaccharidescondense to form disaccharides • Formed by dehydrationsynthesis • Molecular formula = C12H22O11
Carbohydrates A disaccharide is produced by joining 2 monosaccharide (single sugar) units. In this animation, 2 glucose molecules are combined using a condensation reaction, with the removal of water.Glucose molecules joining to form a disaccharide Condensation of Monosaccharides
Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides many sugars: • General formula – (C6H10O5)n • Formed by dehydrationsynthesis • Long chains of glucosemolecules
Lipids: Fats, Oils, and Waxes • Elements – carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (not a 2:1 H:O ratio) • Do not dissolve in water • Lipids contain a large number of C-H bonds which store more energy than C-O bonds in carbohydrates • Monomers: glycerol and fatty acid
Lipids: • Fatty Acids: • Fatty acids are unbranched C-chains (12-28 C) with a carboxyl group (acid) at one end • The carboxyl end is polarand attracted to water – hydrophilic • The hydrocarbon end is nonpolarand does not interact with water – hydrophobic
Fatty Acid General Structure Saturated (single bonds) Unsaturated (double bonds)
Lipids: • Three major roles of lipids in living organisms: • Lipids can be used to store energy • Lipids are important parts of biological membranes • Lipids are waterproof coverings
Lipids • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) are formed by a glycerol molecule bonding to fatty acid(s) • formed by dehydration synthesis
Triglycerides • Three fatty acids attached to glycerol
Phospholipids • Two fatty acids joined to a glycerol • Makes up cell membrane - phospholipid bilayer
Proteins • Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen • Monomer: amino acid (20 different kinds) • Each amino acid has a central carbon atom bonded to 4 other atoms or functional groups
Proteins • Bond that joins amino acids (protein) = peptide bond
Proteins • Formation of a peptide bond
Functions of Proteins • Control the rate of reactions • Regulate cell processes • Form important cellular structures • Transport substances into or out of cells • Help to fight disease
Enzymes and Substrates: Enzyme + Substrate = ES complex EP complex = Enzyme + product(s)
Denaturing Proteins: • Protein that has lost its active conformation, or shape • Denaturing caused by: • Temperature • Solute (salt) Concentration • pH
Nucleic Acids • Large, complex organic compounds that store information in cells, using a system of four compounds to store hereditary information, arranged in a certain order as a code for genetic instructions of the cell. • Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus • Monomer: Nucleotide • Phosphate group (Phosphoric Acid) • 5-carbon (pentose) sugar (Deoxyribose or Ribose) • Nitrogenous Base
Nitrogenous Bases There are FOUR Nitrogen bases
Nucleic Acids • Nucleotides combine, in DNA to form a double helix, and in RNA a single helix • The sides of the ladder are made up of the phosphate group and the sugar and the rungs of the ladder are nitrogen bases • Examples of Nucleic Acids: 1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) 2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)