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SOA

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SOA

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  1. SOA Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Protein Identification Lab

  2. BENEDICT’S TEST

  3. IODINE TEST

  4. TRANSLUCENCE TEST

  5. BIURET TEST

  6. CONCLUSIONS 1. Why should graduated cylinders and droppers be cleaned after each usage? This is to avoid contamination of samples. 2. Which test tube served as a control in the test for reducing sugars and starches (Part 1+2)? Why are controls used in the experiments? Water is used as a control because it is negative in all tests and a medium for all reactions. Controls are used to be sure that what we are testing (manipulated variable) is what causes changes (responding variables) and NOT side reactions. 3. What laboratory data suggests that not all sugars are reducing sugars? Reducing sugars are (generally) simple sugars or monosaccharides (Benedict’s). Starch (polysaccharide) is NOT a sugar and sucrose (disaccharide) is not reducing so it is negative in Benedict’s test.

  7. CONCLUSIONS 4. A student decides to sabotage the lab results of his classmates and places a sugar cube into solution Z. Explain the effect of dissolving a sugar cube in the solution. Sugar is sucrose. Sucrose tested negative with Benedict’s AND with iodine (both carbohydrate tests) so there would be no harm done. 5. A drop of iodine accidentally falls on a piece of paper. Predict the colour change, if any, and provide an explanation for your prediction. Paper turns blue/black with iodine. This shows that it contains starch. This makes sense since plants store their glucose (produced during photosynthesis) as polysaccharide (starch). 6. A student heats a test tube containing a large amount of protein and notices a colour change in the test tube. Explain why heating causes a colour change. Heating causes a re-arrangement of peptide bonds which is a chemical change. Colour change indicates chemical change.

  8. CONCLUSIONS 7. Explain the advantage of using two separate tests for fats. Having extra tests would confirm results. 8. Would you expect to find starches and sugars in blood plasma? Explain your answer. There should be sugars (monosaccharides) in the blood since all cells require sugars for energy and monosaccharides are the breakdown products of carbohydrate digestion. There would NOT be starches, however, because starch is a big molecule (polysaccharide) and could not diffuse from the intestine into the blood without first being broken down into simple sugars.

  9. SOB Enzyme Lab

  10. RESULTS:

  11. RESULTS 1. In part 1, which test served as the control. Why was it needed? The tube with the sand served as the control. This was needed to show that peroxide has NO CHEMICAL REACTION WITH SAND. Thus, any subsequent reaction is due to enzymes in liver (or potato). 2. Account for the different reaction rates between the liver and potato. Liver contains the enzyme catalase which breaks down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and oxygen. There is little catalase in potatoes (which grow underground) (low O2). 3. Why did the crushed liver in #4 react differently from the uncrushed liver in #3? Crushing liver exposes more catalase to the substrate so produces a faster reaction (increased surface area exposed).

  12. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 0 seconds

  13. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 1 second

  14. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 2 seconds

  15. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 3 seconds PRODUCT = 3 O2 IN 3 seconds (1 mol/sec)

  16. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 3x ENZYME: TIME = 0 seconds

  17. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 3x ENZYME: TIME = 1 second PRODUCT = 3 O2IN 1 second (3 mol/sec)

  18. RESULTS 4. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more enzyme? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. Having more enzyme speeds up reaction rate but amount of product is the same if amount of substrate does not change.

  19. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 0 seconds

  20. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 1 second

  21. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 2 seconds

  22. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. NORMAL REACTION: TIME = 3 seconds PRODUCT = 3 O2 IN 3 seconds (1 mol/sec)

  23. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE: TIME = 0 seconds

  24. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE : TIME = 1 second

  25. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE : TIME = 2 seconds

  26. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE : TIME = 3 seconds

  27. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE : TIME = 4 seconds

  28. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE : TIME = 5 seconds

  29. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. 2X SUBSTRATE : TIME = 6 seconds PRODUCT = 6 O2 IN 6 seconds (1 mol/sec)

  30. RESULTS 5. Would the rate of reaction be faster or slower with more substrate? Would the amount of product be more or less? Explain. Having more substrate would not affect the reaction RATE (although the total reaction TIME would be longer). The amount of PRODUCT is proportional to the SUBSTRATE put in so would increase with increased substrate. 6. Does changing the pH of an enzyme change the results? What happens to the enzymes in high and low pH? Relate these findings to conditions in the body. Yes, enzymes work best at certain pH levels. At extreme pH (high or low) enzymes “denature” and function poorly. In the body there are different places with different pHs. Ex. A stomach enzyme should work BEST at LOW pH while a blood enzyme might work best at slightly higher than pH 7.

  31. RESULTS 7. What would be the optimal pH for an organ secreting BOTH types of enzyme in the graphed data? Optimal pH for BOTH enzymes would be pH 5.5.

  32. RESULTS 8. Does changing the temperature of an enzyme change the results? What happens to the enzymes in high and low temperature? Relate these findings to conditions in the body. Yes, enzymes work best at certain temperature levels. At extreme temperature enzymes function poorly. Heat “denatures” or melts proteins essentially destroying them. Cold slows/freezes the active site. It doesn’t work but CAN recover if thawed out. In the body there are different places with different temperatures. Ex. A muscle enzyme might work at elevated temperatures. Enzymes making sperm require lower than body temperatures (so testes are held outside the body).

  33. RESULTS 9. What would be the optimal temperature for an organ secreting BOTH types of enzyme in the graphed data? Optimal temperature for BOTH enzymes would be 23ºC.

  34. RESULTS 10. Give some reasons you can think of for why different enzymes might react differently in different conditions (amount, pH, temperature). Enzymes in different organisms or different parts of the same organism may be exposed to varying pH ranges, temperatures, and substrate concentrations. Body conditions vary as do environments in which an organism lives. Ie. Arctic waters, tropical deserts, volcanic vents, stomach acids, etc.