Top Ranked University GhauthJasmon & KuruRatnavelu University of Malaya
How do we rank a university? Can we measure these attributes that defines a Top Ranked University? National ranking? International Ranking?
Why rank universities globally?It is difficult to equate and compare academic indicators between vastly disparate economies.
University Ranking and Global Competition University Ranking have intensified Global Competition among TOP institutions. Universities are judged by their Research Performance, Production of Quality Graduates, Attracting Quality Faculties. Increased Investments in Research Universities. Better University Leadership. Growth of Financial Resources/Endowments. Smarter Partnerships in Asia – Shift in Priority.
“Universities operate in both national and global contexts. The world class idea is in the global sphere. It assumes that the university is competing with the best academic institutions in the world and is aspiring to the pinnacle of excellence and recognition. … To label one world-class while relegating the others to the nether regions of the academic hierarchy is perhaps inevitable, but nonetheless unfortunate. How to relate to these varying realities is not easy, but it is of central importance” Philip G. Altbach, International Higher Education 2002 Boston College
“The variety of outcomes in the THES study underlies the fact that universities have different missions & different strengths that make them difficult to compare. There is no sign that a high ranking university in our table is better than one lowly ranked” John O’Leary Editor The Times Higher Education Supplement 2005 World University Rankings
“It would be impossible to attribute too much weight to the small differences in overall scores between universities low down the rankings ” Martin Ince (2005), Contributing Editor of The Times Higher Education Supplement
World Class Universities • It has become quite common to observe that there is a rapidly growing trend among universities in the world to have a Mission or Vision statement that states their aspiration to become a World Class University capable of delivering world-class education to their students. • What is a world-class university? What is a world-class education? • These questions are now becoming increasingly important to many universities and higher education administrators throughout the world. • There is no clear definition of what is a world-class university. What is needed to be a world-class educating university?
Some Possible Definition of World Class University • A University that Excels in Research, Teaching and Service to the Community Where Through: • Research: Most of the Academics and their Outputs are Globally Leading in the Field • Teaching: Cutting Edge Knowledge Taught and Graduates are Highly Demanded and They rise to Become Leaders , Innovators and Entrepreneurs • Service to Community: Expertise of Staff and Students Sought After to Guide or Solve Community’s Problems
Some Pertinent Questions Does Malaysia Have World Class Universities? Malaysia’s Vision To Become Centre of Academic Excellence – Myth or Reality? Are Malaysian Universities Like Malaysian Soccer in the World Cup? (FIFA Ranking > 150) Is The Universities World Ranking Exercise Important – THE-QS, Shanghai-Jiaotong? Are Universities Built For Global Competition? Universities Getting More Autonomy But Need To Be Financially More Self-Sustaining?
Key Issues in UM? No Proper Definition, Measurement & Exercise of Academic Excellence Claimed to be World Class - But Is It True? Resting on Its Laurels Best Practices/True Academic Culture? Huge Gap - Best and Weakest Quality of Research – Accumulating Citations Attitude and Mindset - Resistance to Change KPIs that are Incompatible Promotion System That Is Not Helpful 12
Key Issues in UM? Barriers and Ineffective Communications Lax In Imposing Discipline: Action on Non- Performing Staff/Standards of Integrity? World Class Initiatives – But Are Staff Ready? VC’s Terms Are Short-Lived Management That Lacks Courage & Vision Bureaucratic Walls/Inefficiencies
10 KEY SUCCESS FACTORS Cutting Edge Research & Research Productivity Impact, Citations and Recognition International Networking & Partnerships Market-driven Programs & Quality Graduates Service to Community & the World Industry and External Support Entrepreneurship & Commercialization Effective Leadership & Support Services Recruitment of ‘Bright Sparks’ Strategic Collaboration Shift West to East - Top Asian Universities
Majority of the universities in the top rank adopts both the classical and modern definitions. They are self governing and form an independent institution. These institutions develop linkages with large industries, conduct research which transgress their own borders and looks at worldwide issues. They also produce graduates with comprehensive appreciation. Another reason why these universities are world class is because they recruit first rate faculty members from all over the world and inadvertently the staff memberscomprises of a large percentage of international recruits.
ResearchResearch is the one of the MAIN core business of any university which wishes to claim itself as world class.
To pursue quality research means the immense need to attain certain amount of funding. It is definitely critical that there should be sufficient grants for research to be carried out.
Ranking exercises to stayBy KAREN CHAPMAN UM wants to be continuously gauged to see how it fares against other varsities. UNIVERSITI Malaya (UM) will continue to participate in world ranking exercises as it needs to benchmark itself against the best. Its vice-chancellor Prof Datuk Dr GhauthJasmon said all top universities wanted to be part of such exercises as it was a good way of knowing how they fared against the others. We want 200,000 foreign students by 2020 but how do we sell Malaysian education if we don’t have a top university? This is why it’s important to continually improve the university’s performance and although we have seen some impact, it would take some years to see the results,” he explained. http://thestar.com.my/education/story.asp?file=/2010/11/14/education/7349782&sec=education some years to see the results
A Preamble • Who decides which is the best university in the world? THES? SJTU? • It is difficult to equate and compare academic indicators between vastly disparate economies.
What Happened to UM? Utusan Malaysia 31 October 2005 2
The Star 30 October 2005 New Straits Times 29 October 2005
Upgrade your knowledge – enhance, repair, connect, and adapt your universities! A GUIDE TO Ranking Universities Kuru Ratnavelu
Some insights: “A world-class university will be widely recognised as an eminent institution, as a place where top staffs wish to congregate. Given the chance, staff from other universities will migrate to world-class university and top faculty attract top students. The process is auto-catalytic. This means such a university will certainly be a research-intensive university. It must also teach well…” John Niland, past Vice-Chancellor UNSW (1992-2002)
“The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century. The Institute is committed to generating, disseminating, and preserving knowledge, and to working with others to bring this knowledge to bear on the world's great challenges. MIT is dedicated to providing its students with an education that combines rigorous academic study and the excitement of discovery with the support and intellectual stimulation of a diverse campus community. We seek to develop in each member of the MIT community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind. • http://web.mit.edu/facts/mission.html on 12June 2007
Imperfect world rankings “All of our universities have for years been striving to succeed in an increasingly competitive international environment with decreased government funding. Now this international competition has become obvious to all with the publication of academic rankings by the London Times Higher Education Supplement, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Newsweek. … China and Singapore continue to pump funds into their leading universities. Taiwan and Korea have begun multibillion-dollar schemes to create world-class universities and Germany and Japan, which feel they have slipped, are also providing large sums of money to boost their top universities. Imperfect though they are, international rankings matter because people use them. They ensure a seat at the global table and they attract outstanding academics and students alike. Professor Gavin Brown, Vice-chancellor and principal of the University of Sydney and the chairman of the Association of Pacific Rim Universities.Sydney Morning Heraldon the 5 June 2007
National Higher Education Action Plan Chapter 6 – Strengthening the IPT 4th Thrust Section 6.43 (Diagram 6.4) 1st Phase(Fundamentals2007 -2010) - It is expected that 3 universities in the Top 200 and at least one in the Top 100 in the world. 2nd Phase (Strengthening and Improving2011-2015) - It is expected that two universities will be among the Top 100 and one in the Top 50. 3rd Phase (Excellence - 2016-2020) – 3 universities in the Top 100 and at least 1 in the Top 50. 4th Phase (Beyond 2020) – Two universities in the Top 50.
World University Rankings • The defunct Asiaweek Survey of Asia-Pacific Universities (1997-2000). • The Shanghai Jiao-Tong Survey since 2003. • The THES World University Rankings since 2004. Limited to specific countries
Criteria AW 2000 • Academic Reputation • Student Selectivity • Faculty Resources • Research • Financial resources
CriteriaWeight 1. Quality of Education 10% 2. Quality of Faculty 40% 3. Research Output 40% 4. Size of Institution 10% Total 100% SJTU Criteria
SJTU Criteria Indicators Criteria Indicators 1. Quality of Education Alumni winning Nobel Prize/Field Medal 2. Quality of Faculty i) Staff winning Nobel Prize/Field Medals ii) Highly Cited Researchers 3. Research Outputi) Articles published in Nature & Science ii) Articles in Citation Index 4. Size of InstitutionAcademic performance with respect to size of institution
SJTU Criteria Indicators Total no. of Alumni winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals • Alumni (Bachelor, Master's or doctoral degrees) Weights: 100% for alumni from Class of 1991-2000. 90% for alumni from Class of 1981-1990. 80% for alumni from Class of 1971-1980. …10% for alumni from Class of 1901-1910. If a person obtains more than one degree from an institution, the institution is considered once only.
SJTU Criteria Indicators No. of Awards won by staff of an institution (Nobel Prizes & Fields Medal in Mathematics) • Staff is defined as those who work at an institution at the time of winning the prize. Different weights were set according to the periods of winning the prizes. Weights: 100% for winners in 2001-2004 90% for winners in 1991-2000 80% for winners in 1981-1990 …10% for winners in 1911-1920. If a winner is affiliated with more than one institution, each institution is assigned the reciprocal of the number of institutions. For Nobel prizes, if a prize is shared by more than one person, weights are set for winners according to their proportion of the prize.
SJTU Criteria Indicators Highly Cited researchers The number of highly cited researchers in broad subject categories in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences, engineering and social sciences. Nature & Science The number of articles published in Nature and Science between 2000 and 2004.
SJTU Criteria Indicators SCI Total number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index in 2004. Size The weighted scores of the above five indicators divided by the number of full-time equivalent academic staff. If the number of academic staff for institutions of a country cannot be obtained, the weighted scores of the above five indicators is used. For ranking 2005, the numbers of full-time equivalent academic staff are obtained for institutions in USA, Japan, China, Italy, Australia, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Slovenia, etc.
The Times Higher Education Supplement World Ranking UniversitiesTHES -QS
Criteria Indicator Weight 1. Peer Review 40% 2. Recruiter Review 10% 3. International Staff 5% 4. International Students 5% 5. Faculty/Staff Ratio 20% 6. Citations/Staff Ratio 20%Total 100%
NEWSWEEK 2000 A hybrid of SJTU and THES rankings: 50% of the score came from equal parts of three measures used by Shanghai Jiatong: • the number of highly-cited researchers in various academic fields • the number of articles published in Nature and Science, • the number of articles listed in the ISI Social Sciences and Arts & Humanities indices. 40% of the score came from equal parts of four measures used by the Times: • the percentage of international faculty, • the percentage of international students, • citations per faculty member (using ISI data), • and the ratio of faculty to students. The final 10% came from library holdings (number of volumes).
The Higher Education (THE) – QS World University Rankings (since 2004) In this ranking, UM (Top 200 in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009), USM were listed in Top 200 in 2004. UKM (2006). The Shanghai Jiao Tong Academic Ranking of World Universities (since 2003) NO MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITIES LISTED There are now 2 World Rankings Surveys Till 2009- that is being widely accepted
The QS-AUR(Asian University Rankings)- In 2010, 5 Malaysian universities listed in Top 100. The THEM is the new Times Education Magazine ranking in September 2010 – No Malaysian universities participated. Participation by invitation. UM is absolutely committed to participate and compete in World Ranking to place Malaysia in the World Map in QUALITY HIGHER EDUCATION There is also 2 other rankings:QS-Asian University Rankings (Since 2009)&THEM 2010 (Sept 2010)
2010 QS WorlD Ranking(WUR)In 2010, Univ Cambridge finished No. 1 ahead of Harvard University (No. 2). Univ Oxford has fallen another place in this year again to 6th as did University College London
The rise and fall of universities . • Among the Asia-Pacific universities, ANU is still No.1 among the universities in this region. Nevertheless it fell from 17th in WUR 2009 to 20th in WUR 2010. University of Hong Kong has displaced University of Tokyo as the No. 2 university (rising from 24th to 23rd in 2010) in the Asia-Pacific region. Tokyo U has fallen from 22nd to 24th in the rankings. Kyoto maintains its position as 25th in these rankings. NUS remains as 5th in Asia-Pacific ( its ranking has fallen from 30th to 31st)! • Among the Australian Universities, Monash U has fallen down to 61st in WUR 2010 ( it was 45th in 2009). The same was observed for Adelaide U which fell out of Top 100 in 2010. It was ranked 103rd in comparison of its 81st position last year. Auckland has also fallen 7 places from 61st to 68th. ChulalongkornUniv has fallen to 180th from 138! • There are a number of Hong Kong, South Korean, Taiwan and Chinese universities moving upwards in the WUR 2010.
Are we to believe that the standards of Tokyo, NUS, Adelaide, Monash and ChulalongkornUniv have dropped over the last year? It is a numbers’ game essentially! Furthermore, the fluctuation in the WUR ranking has been sometimes been very drastic. But the public perception is, that these universities have fallen according to the WUR 2010.
Comparison of Selected universities In WUR 2010, among the Malaysia universities, the top university, UM, has fallen from 180th to 207nd. UKM, UPM and USM have shown some improvement. UTM has also dropped slightly.
National TsingHua University ( 223 to 196) • Queen’s University of Belfast (201 to 197) • Universitat Bonn (237 to 200) • Radbiud University Netherlands (moved from 220th in 2009 to 149th in 2010) • RWTH Aachen Germany (from 182nd to 158th) • Univ Bern (193 to 162) • Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ (195 to 166) • Universitat Karlsruhe (184 to 166) • Stockholm University (215 to 168) • Univ Leicester (196 to 169) • Univ Boulder (186 to 170) • UniversitatAutonama Barcelona (211 to 176) • Universite Paris Sorbonne, Paris 4 (228 to 186) • Korea University (211 to 191). • Universitat Frankfurt am Main (233 to 195)