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The Age of Things: Sticks Stones and the Universe. Precession, Polaris, and the Pyramids of Egypt. http://cfcp.uchicago.edu/~mmhedman/compton1.html. Last Time: Calendars are the Key to Mayan History. Piedras Negras Stela 3, Drawn by Linda Schele. When calendrical information is unavailable,

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the age of things sticks stones and the universe

The Age of Things:Sticks Stones and the Universe

Precession, Polaris, and the Pyramids of Egypt

http://cfcp.uchicago.edu/~mmhedman/compton1.html

slide2

Last Time: Calendars are the Key to Mayan History

Piedras Negras Stela 3, Drawn by Linda Schele

slide3

When calendrical information is unavailable,

the age of things can sometimes be determined using astronomical data

slide4

Warning!

Astrophysict talking about Egyptology!

slide5

The Ages of Ancient Egypt

The General Structure of Egyptian History

Is well established

However, the Egyptians did not have a calendar that counted years from a fixed point in the past

Years were instead counted

From the time the last king came to power.

slide6

The Ages of Ancient Egypt

To figure out exactly when events occurred in time, we need to know all the kings that ever ruled egypt and how long each one ruled

… but existing records are incomplete

slide7

The Ages of Ancient Egypt

Historical records from each kingdom are abundant enough that events can be well located relative to each other in time.

But records from the intermediate periods are sparse, so the length of time occupied by these periods is quite uncertain.

Old Kingdom

Old Kingdom

F.I.P.

F.I. P.

or?

Middle Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

slide8

The Ages of Ancient Egypt

The Middle and New Kingdoms are anchored in time by written texts that mention astronomical events

No such text exists for the Old Kingdom, so this period can “float” in time over a few hundred years

slide9

In 2000, K.E. Spence suggested the Pyramids themselves

could provide the key to anchoring the Old Kingdom in time

slide10

The Old Kingdom: The Age of Pyramids

The Great Pyramids at Giza

slide14

A Curious Pattern in the Pyramids

West Side

East Side

1/2o

East

0o

Alignment Error

West

1/2o

M B R

slide15

Timing the Construction of the Pyramids

Turin Papyrus

Palermo Stone

slide16

A Curioser Pattern in the Pyramids

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

(60 arcminutes = 1 degree)

slide17

A Curioser Pattern in the Pyramids

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

(60 arcminutes = 1 degree)

slide18

A Curioser Pattern in the Pyramids

Slope ~ 1/2 degree per century

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

(60 arcminutes = 1 degree)

slide19

Precession of the earth

Celestial Pole in 2500 BCE

Celestial Pole Today

slide20

The Precession of the Earth affects the night sky

The Northern Sky in 2500 BCE

The Northern Sky Today

N

N

Precession causes the stars to move with respect to North at a rate of about 1/2 degree per century

slide25

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

(60 arcminutes = 1 degree)

slide26

The Northern Stars were important to the Egyptians:

They were the “indestructable” stars, which never died

Ceiling of the tomb of Seti I

slide28

Which pair of stars did the Egyptians use?

Movement of the Celestial Pole

The celestial pole moves with respect to the line at a rate that depends on the position of the stars

slide29

Different Star-pairs would give different slopes

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

(60 arcminutes = 1 degree)

slide31

Only one pair of stars are consistent with the observed data

Observed Drift Rate in the alignment error

slide32

If the Egyptians used these stars,

then we now exactly when the pyramids were built

2500 BCE

2400 BCE

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

slide33

Et tu, Djedefre?

2500 BCE

2400 BCE

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

slide34

Et tu, Djedefre?

2500 BCE

2400 BCE

1/2o East

Alignment Error (arcminutes)

0o

1/2o West

Relative Time (years)

slide35

Only one pair of stars are consistent with the observed data

Observed Drift Rate in the alignment error

slide36

E=mc2

Next Time

The Physics of Carbon 14