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Ethical Perspectives. October 18, 2011. Moral Objectivism. Moral principles have objective validity, independent of cultural acceptance Moral principles or rules will serve as good reasons and the best guidance for making practical decisions

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ethical perspectives

Ethical Perspectives

October 18, 2011

moral objectivism
Moral Objectivism
  • Moral principles have objective validity, independent of cultural acceptance
  • Moral principles or rules will serve as good reasons and the best guidance for making practical decisions
  • Actions should be guided by standards that are established to determine if the actions would be one which all people would follow and which would produce the greatest good
moral objectivism1
Moral Objectivism
  • There are close connections between moral objectivism and authoritarian approaches to leadership in organizations
  • Leaders simply need good knowledge of the rules and closely follows them
utilitarianism
Utilitarianism
  • Argue that ethical choices/decisions should be made on their consequences rather then individual duty
  • Best decisions are those that generate most benefits as compared to disadvantages
  • Benefits the largest number of people
  • End result is attempting to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people
virtue ethics
Virtue Ethics
  • Argue that ethical choices/decisions should be made on their consequences rather then individual duty
  • Best decisions are those that generate most benefits as compared to disadvantages
  • Benefits the largest number of people
  • End result is attempting to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people
challenge of information management
Challenge of Information Management
  • Leaders typically have more access to information than their followers.
  • Leaders have access to financial data, personnel files, network with other leaders of other units, or participate in upper-level decisions.
deception right or wrong
Deception: Right or Wrong
  • Deciding whether or not to tell the truth
  • Are there certain situations or conditions when deception is appropriate or necessary?
  • Ethics also involved in deciding when to share information, with whom to share the information, how to get the information, and even how to share the information?
leaders casting shadows
Leaders Casting Shadows
  • Telling lies for selfish ends
  • Using information solely for personal benefit
  • Denying having knowledge that is in their possession
  • Gathering data in a way that violates privacy rights
  • Withholding information that followers legitimately need
leaders casting shadows1
Leaders Casting Shadows
  • Sharing information with the wrong people
  • Putting followers in moral binds by insisting that they withhold information that others have a right to know
challenge of responsibility
Challenge of Responsibility
  • Leaders held accountable for the actions of others
  • Leaders can set an ethical tone for the entire organization
  • Responsible leaders acknowledge and try to correct or address ethical problems
  • They take responsibility for the consequences of their orders and actions
challenge of consistency
Challenge of Consistency
  • Acting inconsistently can raise ethical dilemmas
  • What are some examples of acting inconsistently that can lead to ethical dilemmas?
  • Leaders may cast shadows when they appear to act arbitrary and inconsistently
moral sensitivity identifying the existence of ethical problems
Moral Sensitivity: Identifying the Existence of Ethical Problems
  • Increase sensitivity
    • Engage in active listening to learn about possible ethical consequences of your decisions/choices
    • Challenge your thinking to insure you are not overlooking important moral considerations
    • Use ethical terms such as values or fairness when describing problems and solutions that involve ethical dilemmas
moral judgment
Moral Judgment
  • Deciding what course of action is the right one to follow
  • Ethical reasoning rests on principles such as justice, cooperation, and respect for others
moral motivation
Moral Motivation
  • Refers to following through on your choices or decisions
  • Leaders ideally create an ethically rewarding environment and they manage their own emotions
  • Evaluating on processes as well as on results
moral character
Moral Character
  • Refers to persistence in implementing ethical actions
  • Leaders ideally believe they can make a difference
  • Leaders understand the culture and master the context so they can respond effectively when needed
  • Leaders build communication competence so they can put into their decisions into actions
authentic leaders
Authentic Leaders
  • Heightened levels of self-awareness including knowing and trusting their feelings and thoughts and being aware and committed to their values.
  • Balanced processing includes having positive self-esteem and recognizing weaknesses and taking steps to improve them
authentic leaders1
Authentic Leaders
  • Authentic behavior—leaders give priority to their values rather than conforming to the group.
  • They resist group and organizational pressures to act in a way that is inconsistent with their principles
  • Leaders are sensitive to the demands of the situation
altruism
Altruism
  • Making concerns for others the ultimate ethical standard
  • We ought to help others regardless of whether we get any benefit from doing so.
questions
Questions
  • Do you think altruism is part of human nature?
  • Should leaders act as “servants” to their followers?
self reflection page 364
Self-Reflection: Page 364
  • See number 2 application exercise: Think of an ethical dilemma you have faced and analyze your response based on Rest’s four-component model.
  • What are the most important top three virtues of leaders? Defend your choices.