blood l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Blood PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Blood

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20
steve

Blood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

148 Views
Download Presentation
Blood
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Blood

  2. Functions • Carries O2, hormones, and nutrients to the body tissues • Helps to remove CO2 and other wastes from the body • helps to regulate and distribute body heat • Helps protect against infection • Clotting to prevent excessive bleeding from the wound

  3. Composition • Plasma (55%) • Erythrocytes (RBC’s) • Leukocytes (WBC’s) • Thrombocytes (platelets)

  4. Erythrocyte • Red blood cell (35 trillion) • Primary function to carry oxygen to all of the cells (oxygen binds with a protein called hemoglobin). • RBC formation (erythropoiesis) in adults takes place in the red bone marrow • Average life span 90 to 120 days • As they become fragile they are removed by macrophages in the liver, spleen and bone marrow.

  5. Leukocyte • White blood cell (lifespan 9 days) • Primary effector cells against fighting infection and tissue damage. • Neutralize and destroy organisms • Act as scavengers clean up damaged cells by phagocytosis to initiate the repair process • Normal WBC count 5,000 to10,000/mm3 • Differential count: measures % of each type of WBC

  6. 5 Types of Leukocytes • Neurophils • Most prevalent • Fight by phagocytosis (process of engulfing and swallowing germs) • Basophils • Promote the inflammatory response • Eosinophils • Increase in response to allergic reactions • Lymphocytes • Formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen • Important role in immunity • Monocytes • Formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen • Important role in immunity • Elevation usually indicates a chronic infection

  7. Thrombocytes • Platelets; smallest blood cell • 130,000 to 400,000 mm3 • Play an important role in blood coagulation, hemostasis, and blood thrombus formation • Platelets can form a “plug” (by adhering to each other) to seal a small vessel or start the clotting process • Can be beneficial or harmful (eg. Includes coronary occlusion)

  8. Plasma • Liquid part of lymph and blood • 91% water • 9% - consists of serum, protein and chemical substances like electrolytes and glucose • Important role in fighting infection and in the clotting (coagulation) of blood

  9. Blood Typing • A person’s blood type is an inherited characteristic of the blood • A blood type is determined by the antigens located on the surface of the red blood cell • Clumping of incompatible cells blocks blood vessels and may cause death

  10. Types • A- 41% • B- 12% • AB-3% Universal Recipient • O- 44% Universal donor

  11. Reasons for blood transfusions • To replace blood lost through hemorrhage • to treat anemia • To treat shock • To exchange blood in certain disorders • To aid recovery as a preoperative or postoperative procedure

  12. Rh Factor • Red Blood Cell Protein • 85% of population have protein and are + • 15% are Negative • When Rh + blood given to a Rh - person, Rh antibodies are formed and the Rh+ blood is destroyed. • Rh - blood can be given to RH+ persons

  13. Rh Factor and Pregnancy • An Rh negative mother may become sensitized by proteins from an RH positive baby (inherited from the father) • During pregnancies following the sensitization, the mother’s antibodies may pass into the blood of the unborn infant and cause erythroblastosis, a destruction of RBC’s • Rhogam (Rh immune globulin) - prevents the development of these antibodies

  14. Innovations in Blood Transfusions • Autologous transfusions • Interoperative salvage (e.g., open heart) • Apheresis – donated blood is separated into parts using a centrifuge. (before apheresis, 1 platelet transfusion required 5 to 10 donors)

  15. CommonAssessment Techniques • Direct Examination • Chemical Tests • Coagulation Studies

  16. Direct Examination • Hemoglobin (Hgb) test measures the amount of oxygen-carrying ability of the blood • Hematocrit (Hct) measures the volume of erythrocytes in the blood • Sedimentation rates measure how long it takes for erythrocytes in the blood to settle to the bottom of a container • Reticulocyte studies measure the number of immature red blood cells

  17. Assessment Techniques(continued) • Red blood cell (RBC) counts determine the number of circulating red blood cells in 1 mm3 of blood • Platelet or thrombocyte counts measure the number of platelets in 1 mm3 of blood to determine clotting ability • Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) studies examine bone marrow from the iliac crest of the hip

  18. Chemical Tests • Spectophotometry – calculates the concentration of substances in solution by measuring the amount of light it absorbs • Examples: Complete Blood Count (CBC), Sequential Multiple Analysis (SMA)

  19. Coagulation Studies • Bleeding Time – amt of time an incision takes to clot • Prothrombin Time (PT) – uses an anticoagulant to measure the blood sample’s clotting time