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Baptism. From Greek, b aptizein , meaning to plunge. Plunge represents burial with Christ Emerging from waters represents resurrection. Etymology. To welcome believers into Church To wash away original sin. . Purpose. Has roots in Jewish tradition John the Baptist Jesus was Baptized

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From Greek, baptizein, meaning to plunge.

  • Plunge represents burial with Christ
  • Emerging from waters represents resurrection

To welcome believers into Church

  • To wash away original sin.
historical development

Has roots in Jewish tradition

  • John the Baptist
  • Jesus was Baptized
  • Early Christian baptized as adults, after catechesis
  • Moved younger and younger
Historical Development
what is needed

Willing, believing participant.

  • Or child of willing, believing parents/guardians
  • Water
    • Usually a baptismal font
  • Chrism
  • Candle
  • Celebrant
What is needed?
who can perform a baptism

Bishop should

  • Priests regularly do.
  • Deacons can be given permission.
  • In case of emergency, anyone can.
Who can perform a Baptism?

To strengthen graces conferred at Baptism

  • For those baptized as infants, it gives the confirmandi a chance to own their own baptism
  • To receive the gifts of the Holy Spirit
historical development1

Pentecost: descent of the Holy Spirit

  • Originally performed along with Baptism and first Communion
  • 2 major changes to early church
    • Constantine
    • Suburbanization.
  • Bishops were no longer able to keep up with demand.
  • Delegated the performance to priests
  • Continued to bless the holy Chrism
Historical Development
who performs the sacrament

Usually a bishop.

  • A regular priest may, under special circumstances.
Who performs the Sacrament?

From the Greek “eukharistia”

  • Meaning “thanksgiving” or gratitude

To give thanks

  • To literally receive Jesus and become one with him
  • To be in community with the entire Church
historical development2

Passover Meal

  • St. Paul: 1 Corinthians 11
  • Mark: Last Supper
  • John: Bread of Life Discourse
  • Early Church: Didache
  • Post-Constantinian institutionalization
  • Trent
  • Vatican II
Historical Development
what is needed2


  • Wine
  • Water
  • Ordained priest
What is needed?


  • Conversion to Christ

John 20

  • Public sins: Public confession
    • Rarely used today
    • Objected to by Leo the Great
  • Private sins: Private confession
    • Spread by Anglo-Saxon monks
  • Trent
    • Not just internal conversion
who performs the sacrament1

God forgives sins

  • Priest acts in persona Christi
  • Priest is a representative of the entire Church.
Who Performs the Sacrament?
what is needed3

Penitent heart

  • Confession of all sins remembered.
  • Priest
  • The words “I absolve you of your sins.”
What is needed?
also called

Last Rites

  • Extreme Unction
  • Unction of the sick
  • Unction of God
Also Called

To confer spiritual strength

  • Union with the Passion of Christ
  • Prayers for the sick and dying
  • Preparation for the final journey

Mark 6

  • James 5:14-15
  • Early Church
  • Extreme Unction
  • Luther and Calvin
  • Trent

To form a union of love between man and woman in the way that Christ loves the Church

  • To be in community as God is in community
  • Procreation
scriptural development

Genesis 2:23

  • Jacob
  • Song of Solomon
  • Jesus on Divorce
  • Ephesians 5
  • St. Paul
  • Early Church Fathers
  • John Paul II and modernization
Scriptural Development
what is needed5

Unmarried woman

  • Unmarried man
  • Both free to marry within the Catholic Church
  • Both baptized
What is needed?
3 rites of holy orders

Episcopal Ordination

    • Fullness of Sacrament
  • Ordination of Priests
    • Co-workers with Bishops
  • Ordination of Deacons
    • “In order to serve”
    • Lowest level
3 Rites of Holy Orders
historical development3

Hebrew Scriptures

    • Proclaim the word of God
    • Restore relationship with God through Sacrifices
  • Apostles
  • 2 Priesthoods
    • Common priesthood
    • Ministerial priesthood
Historical Development
who can partake in this sacrament

Bishops confer

  • Baptized men receive
  • Once a priest, always a priest
Who can partake in this Sacrament?