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Assessment in Education . Laura Acosta Juan Hernandez Denize Christobal Brenda Southern. School Assessment Programs. Goals: Provide information to all stake holders & improve every student’s learning

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Assessment in education

Assessment in Education

Laura Acosta

Juan Hernandez

Denize Christobal Brenda Southern

School assessment programs
School Assessment Programs

Goals: Provide information to all stake holders & improve every student’s learning

Purposes: Identify readiness, determine mastery of skills, placement into educational programs, Id. students with special needs, evaluate curriculum & specific programs of study, aid in educational or vocational decision making, to assess individual ability or aptitude, and to measure effectiveness of courses

Planning: Complex process includes students, parents, teachers, administrators, local postsecondary institution representatives

Id. goals, information needed, and establish instrument selection criteria, delegation of responsibilities, and the development of dissemination procedures and strategies to monitor the program

Instruments used in school assessment programs
Instruments Used in School Assessment Programs:

Tests for Achievement, Intellectual Ability, Readiness, Aptitude, Admission & Career Assessment Instruments

Activities: Refer students out to other professionals when needed, interpret scores, keep abreast of ethical and multicultural issues, use test and non-test data to make decisions, professional development, interpret & communicate information to interested parties, and help teachers to use assessment and assessment information

Data Mining Process

Needs assessments responsiveness to intervention
Needs Assessments & Responsiveness to Intervention

Needs Assessment

Formal process of gathering data from various sources on the needs of students from different populations

To prioritize school counseling programs

Serves as justification for implementation of program, to evaluate it and the effectiveness of the interventions

To demonstrate immediate, intermediate, or long-range results of how students are different as a result of thecounseling program


Approach to identify students with SLDs & provide those at-risk with services and interventions

Tier I

Whole group instruction

Tier II


Tier III

Special Education

Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

Assessing specific learning disabilities

Specific learning disability (SLD)

A neurological disorder that severely impairs children’s ability to learn or to demonstrate skills in several academic areas.

Assessing Specific Learning Disabilities

Assessing specific learning disabilities1
Assessing Specific Learning Disabilities

These Academic areas are:

Oral Expression

Listening Comprehension

Written Expression

Basic Reading Skill

Reading Comprehension

Mathematical Calculation

Mathematical Reasoning

Assessing specific learning disabilities2
Assessing Specific Learning Disabilities

Students with an SLD may have difficulty listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or doing math problems.

They often show intra-individual differences.

It is estimated that approximately 6% of students may have an SLD, mostly in the area of reading.

Assessing specific learning disabilities3
Assessing Specific Learning Disabilities

The most common method used to identify students with SLDs is the ability-achievement discrepancy model (also called the IQ-achievement discrepancy model).

This model identifies students as learning disabled when there is a severe discrepancy between their scores on an ability test and their scores on an achievement test.

A discrepancy of 1 to 11/2 standard deviations between the scores generally qualifies as severe.

Assessing giftedness
Assessing Giftedness

The term giftedness is applied to those students who perform or show potential for performing at exceptionally high levels of accomplishment when compared to others of their age, experience or environment.

Three million children, or 5% of the U.S. student population, are considered gifted and talented.

The process of assessing students for giftedness usually entails two phases: Screening and identification.

Assessing giftedness1
Assessing Giftedness

In the identification stage of the process, further assessment is conducted focusing on four areas:

Cognitive Ability

Academic Ability

Creative Thinking Ability

Visual or Performing Arts Ability

Cognitive ability and academic ability are evaluated using standardized ability tests and standardized achievement tests.

See table 14.2 on pg.315 for instruments and strategies that may be used to assess cognitive ability and academic ability.

Assessing giftedness2
Assessing Giftedness

Creative thinking ability can be assessed by using intelligence tests, general giftedness screening instruments, or instruments designed specifically to appraise creativity.

Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) E. Paul Torrance(1974). Can be used to assess creative thinking ability.

Consists of two different tests: Figural TTCT and the Verbal TTCT.

Torrance also developed Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement, Thinking Creatively with Sounds and Words and Thinking Creatively with Pictures

Assessing giftedness3
Assessing Giftedness

Visual or performing arts ability is usually demonstrated through a display of work, a performance, or an exhibition.

There are also instruments that were developed to assess specific characteristics of giftedness.

One example is the Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students, Revised.

It is comprised of 14 scales associated with the characteristics of gifted students.

Other instruments usedfor identifying gifted and talented students include the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form(GRS-S), Gifted and Talented Evaluation Scale(GATES), and the Screening Assessment for Gifted Elementary and Middle School Students(SAGES-2).

Test preparation and performance
Test Preparation and Performance



Test Anxiety


Used by administrators, teachers and counselors

Provided through public schools, private classes, private tutors, test books, and software programs

IE: SAT prep classes

Concerns about social, philosophical, and ethical aspects of coaching

Test wiseness

Individuals ability to utilized the characteristics and formats of a test

Independent of students knowledge of subject matter being tested

Strategies : Time Use, Error Avoidance, Guessing, and Use of Deductive Reasoning, Familiarizing yourself with the Test

Test wiseness1
Test Wiseness

Strategy for Multiple Choice Test


Skim the test

Plan you Strategy

Leave out Difficult Questions

Attack Questions you Know

Systematically Guess

House Cleaning

Test anxiety
Test Anxiety

Feeling of Uneasiness or Tension that is felt during testing situations 

That can cause upset stomach, headache, loss of concentration, fear, irritability, anger and depression

Test anxiety1
Test Anxiety

How to relieve test anxiety

1. understand test instructions

2. establish rapport

3. relax and stress free environment

4. provide session on how to take test

5. practice test

6. study guides

 Relaxation Exercises

Environmental assessments in the school
Environmental Assessments in the School

Environmental Assessment

Factors that interact with and predict behavior

1. Physical Space

2. Organizations and Supervision of Space

3. Materials

4. Peer Environment

5. Organization and Scheduling

6. Safety

7. Responsiveness

Environmental factors with school
Environmental Factors with School

1. Physical Setting

2. Teacher/Student relationship

3. Curricular and Educational Materials

4. Students Behaviors

ex: attendance, social interaction, class interruptions

Classroom environment
Classroom Environment

1. Physical and Structural dimensions

2. Interactional Dimensions

3. Instructional Dimensions

Assessment instruments
Assessment Instruments

CES Classroom Environment Scale

2. ESB Effective School Battery

3. SEPS Environment Preference Survey

No child left behind
No Child Left Behind

  • Emphasizes educational accountability

  • By measuring individual student achievement

  • Measure progress towards state achievement standards

  • All states must test in reading, mathematics and science (grades 3-8)

  • Students must meet minimum score to pass or graduate

Assessment in education

  • High stakes testing

  • Affects the educational choices a student will make

  • Judges schools according to student’s test performance

  • High performing schools can receive financial rewards

  • School’s are ranked according to students test scores

Nclb criticisms
NCLB Criticisms

  • Excludes subjects

  • Doesn’t account for student diversity

  • High stakes testing promotes greed fear and stress

  • Encourages cheating and dropping out

  • School counselors time is consumed with testing

  • Lacks state to state consistency

Texas assessment of knowledge and skills
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills

  • TAKS- tests begin in 3rd grade-- reading, writing, math, social studies, language arts and science

  • TAKS (Accommodated) serves students under special education-uses large fonts less questions

  • TAKS–ALT assesses students who have significant cognitive disabilities and are receiving special education services.

  • TAKS–M- tests have been changed in format and test design and administered to children who receive special education services

  • End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments

The american educational research association
The American Educational Research Association

  • Makes the following recommendations:

  • High stakes decisions shouldn’t be made on test scores alone

  • Adequate resources for all students

  • Individual certification and student motivation

  • Policy makers should be made aware of negative consequences

  • The tests should represent the curriculum

  • Students should have a meaningful way to remedy failing a test

  • Language proficiency should be considered to insure proper interpretation of results

  • Students with disabilities should also be taken into consideration

  • Reliable tests to support intended interpretation

The future
The Future

  • Changes to NCLB will include

  • A more rounded education

  • The goal after graduation is career and college readiness

  • Promote change and support

  • Take into consideration diverse students

  • Hold state and districts accountable who don’t support their principals and teachers

  • Measure schools based on student growth, graduation rates and student academic achievement

  • Recruit, place, reward and promote effective teachers and principals