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Merrell, K.W., Ervin, R. A., & Peacock, G. G. (2006). School psychology for the 21st century: Foundations and practices. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Chapters 7 and 9. Chapter 7. Facilitating Change through Data-Driven Problem Solving: A Model for School Psychology Practice.

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chapters 7 and 9

Merrell, K.W., Ervin, R. A., & Peacock, G. G. (2006). School psychology for the 21st century: Foundations and practices. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Chapters 7 and 9

chapter 7
Chapter 7

Facilitating Change through Data-Driven Problem Solving: A Model for School Psychology Practice.

roles of the school psychologist
Roles of the School Psychologist

Expected Role

Future Roles

  • Diagnostic
  • Refer
  • Test
  • Place
  • Non-categorical diagnostics
  • Problem-solving model
    • Assessment
    • Intervention
    • Systems Change
    • Research
  • Focus on prevention
aptitude by treatment interaction ati
Aptitude by Treatment Interaction (ATI)
  • Assumptions:
    • Characteristics of the person affect response to treatment
    • Person will learn more easily from one method than another
    • The method differs from person to person
    • The method can be determined based on data from assessment.
  • Data:
    • Fails to support these assumptions
    • Individuals are not simply one variable deep (mediating and moderating variables and multiple aptitudes).
problem solving model
Problem Solving Model
  • Focuses on the problem
  • Emphasis on early intervention (fix it before it gets bigger).
  • Uses research and not “assumptions” to guide practice. [Evidence-based practice]
  • Uses direct assessment tools for measuring academic and behavioral outcomes.
  • Links the assessment to the intervention.
  • Outcome-focused and context-specific
basic problem identification
Basic Problem Identification
  • This will vary across different academic and behavioral tasks.
  • Changes to make this gap smaller need to focus on all aspects of the child’s issues.
  • This distance may widen and shorten throughout the span of time a child is in school.
what is the problem
What is the problem?
  • Requires objective means to measure the problem.
    • Precise
    • Practical
    • Objective
    • Socially valid
  • Problem morphs into goals (short- and long-term)
  • Measurement must be quantifiable.
    • Intensity
    • Frequency
    • Duration
    • Severity
    • Magnitude
    • Complexity
    • Resistance to intervention.
why is it occurring
Why is it Occurring?
  • Linking assessment to treatment and evaluation
  • Analysis of problem context and function
  • Hypothesis formation phase
  • Assess when, where and with whom the problem is better or worse.
why is it occurring1
Why is it Occurring?

Ways to Test

Review of the reasons for problems:

  • Variety of Sources:
    • Student
    • Teacher
    • Parent
    • Peers
    • Admin
  • Variety of Tools
    • Formal
    • Informal
  • Low motivation
  • Rewarded for not doing the tasks
  • Work is too hard.
  • Work is not sufficiently explained or not enough help provided.
  • Work is too different from what is expected.
what should be done about it
What Should Be Done About It?
  • Use the collected data to determine the basis of the intervention.
  • Design the intervention around this data AND around research-based interventions in the literature.
  • Interventions chosen for:
    • Relevance to the problem
    • Contextual fit
    • Likelihood of success.
  • Establish progress monitoring tools and timelines
did it work
Did it Work?
  • To be completed, problem should be resolved.
  • Examine data collected through progress monitoring.
  • Compare pre-post intervention data.
  • Single-subject design techniques are good.
chapter 9
Chapter 9

The School Psychologist’s Role in Prevention and Intervention: Part 1: Academic Skills

  • Children learn and develop at different rates.
  • Developmental progress varies over time and across domains.
  • Interventions must be adapted to meet the individual student’s needs.
  • Problem solving model cannot guarantee success BUT it should increase the probability of success.
risk and protective factors
Risk and Protective Factors

General Risk Factors

Protective Factors

  • Poverty (lack of resources)
    • Economic Dependence
    • Overcrowding
    • Disorganization within the family system
  • Uncaring parents
  • Chronic family conflict
  • Abuse/ Maltreatment
  • Quality parent/child relationships
  • Good cognitive development
  • Self-regulation of attention, emotion, and behavior
intervention considerations
Intervention Considerations
  • Trustworthy and effective
    • For your student
    • In that context
  • Relevant to the problem and context
  • Efficient
  • Practical
  • Acceptable
  • Feasible in context
  • Produces desired outcomes
  • Evaluated for your child in this situation
things to note
Things to note:
  • Early Intervention in Reading:
    • Phonological awareness
    • Alphabetic understanding
    • Accuracy and fluency
  • Learning needs interactions and alignments between
    • Student (who is being taught)
    • Curriculum (what is being taught)
    • Instruction (how it is being taught)
student who is being taught
Student (Who is being Taught?)
  • What is the student’s prior knowledge: skills, strategies, perceptions, expectations, and beliefs
    • Task specific: information needed for that task.
      • Know the foundational information
      • Can access needed information with automaticity
    • Task related: skills needed for learning.
      • Can solve problems
      • Can self-monitor
      • Can self-regulate
  • Student variables that affect learning:
    • Selective attention
    • Motivation
    • Ability to recall
the curriculum what to teach
The Curriculum (What to Teach?)
  • Types of curriculum:
    • Intended: formally recommended and adopted
    • Taught: what is actually taught by teachers
    • Learned: what is actually learned by students
  • Problems when significant difference between intended and learned.
instruction how and when to teach
Instruction (How and When to Teach)
  • Should be timed for hierarchical learning (example below)
    • Step one = mastered
    • Step two = in progress
    • Step three = on hold
  • Learning facilitated through:
    • Explanations
    • Demonstrations
    • Guided practice
    • Timely correction
    • Task-specific feedback
improve academic engagement motivation self regulation problem solving
Improve Academic Engagement, Motivation, Self-Regulation, & Problem Solving
  • Structuring the Classroom Environment:
    • Organizing a productive classroom
    • Establishing rules and procedures
    • Managing transitions
    • Managing independent seatwork
    • Communicating competency with students
    • Teaching pro-social behavior
  • Contingency-Management:
    • Systems of rewards and punishments
    • Established expectations
  • Teaching Strategies:
    • Interactive strategies over lecture
      • Peer tutoring
      • Cooperative Learning
      • Teacher questioning
improve academic engagement motivation self regulation problem solving1
Improve Academic Engagement, Motivation, Self-Regulation, & Problem Solving
  • Self-Monitoring:
    • Teachable skill
      • Observing behavior
      • Recording observations
    • Self-evaluation
    • Self-reinforcement
  • Self-Instruction
    • Teach them to verbalize information that is unfamiliar.
    • Teaching strategies for learning.
      • Mneumonics
      • Study skills
improve skill development fluency and retention of information
Improve Skill Development, Fluency, and Retention of Information

Organizing Materials

  • Techniques:
    • Demonstration
    • Modeling
    • Cueing
    • Prompting
  • Considerations
    • Break into smaller bits
    • Identify what will be confusing and focus on it.
    • Relate new information to older information
    • Teach to mastery
  • Strategies for Improving Academics
    • Math = number sense
    • Reading = phonemic awareness
    • Reading Fluency = repeated readings
  • Primary prevention: All students are target
    • Who receives intervention (nature of population)
    • What will be the nature of the services
    • How and when to be implemented
  • Collect data to determine who needs help
  • Begin problem solving model to provide help
  • Repeat at secondary and tertiary levels if applicable
class discussion
Class Discussion
  • Read the Discussion Question #5 (pg 204-205) and discuss with the group.