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California Missions. By Ms. Cardenas. Introduction to the Missions.

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california missions



Ms. Cardenas

introduction to the missions
Introduction to the Missions

California’s Highway 1 began as a road connecting 21 Spanish missions. You can still find signs saying “El Camino Real” (“The Royal Highway”). These missions represent the first significant arrival of non-Native Americans to California.

In addition to Christianity, the missionaries brought much more to California such as livestock, foreign plants and new industries. This was the start of the civilization we have today – but it many ways it was not created in a “civil” way. Countless Native American lives were lost.

This presentation gives a quick overview of each mission. Choose what interests you most for a project!

mission san diego de alcala
First mission established in California

Founded on July 16, 1769 by Father Junipero Serra

Named for Saint Didacus de Alcalá

Oldest mission

First mission in the chain that stretches 650 mi along the King’s Highway

Mission San Diego de Alcala
mission san carlos borromeo de carmelo
Second mission

Founded on June 3, 1770 by Father Junipero Serra

Named after Saint Charles Borromeo

Many people say it’s the most beautiful mission of all

Used as headquarters for the California missions

Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo
mission san antonio de padua
Third mission

Founded on July 14, 1771 by Father Junipero Serra

Named for Saint Anthony

Native Americans accepted padres’ beads and cloth in return for their seeds and acorns harvested

In 1773 the mission was moved to Los Robles Valley (better water supply)

Abandoned from 1882-1928

Mission San Antonio de Padua
mission san gabriel arcangel
Fourth mission

Founded on September 8, 1771 by Father Pedro Cambon and Father Angel Somera

Named for Archangel Gabriel

Most prosperous mission, but most difficult to handle

Crowded with military (behavior problem)

Mission San Gabriel Arcangel
mission san luis obispo de tolosa
Fifth mission

Founded on September 1, 1772 by Father Junipero Serra

Named for Saint Luis, Bishop of Toulouse

Marks geographical halfway point of the 21 California missions

Located near a valley, fed people from other missions

Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa
mission san francisco de asis
Sixth mission

Founded on June 26, 1776 by Father Francisco Palou

Named for Saint Francis of Assisi

Also known as Mission Dolores

Damp weather kept Native Americans away

More than 5,000 residents died of the measles

Mission San Francisco de Asis
mission san juan capistrano
Seventh mission

Founded on November 1, 1776 by Father Junipero Serra

Named for Saint John of Capistrano, Italy

Called the “Jewel of the Missions”

Famous for its beautiful gardens

Oldest chapel in California

Mission San Juan Capistrano
mission santa clara de asis
Eighth mission

Founded on January 12, 1777 by Father Junipero Serra

Name for Santa Claire de Assisi

1st mission named after a woman

Moved three times because of Guadalupe River flooding

Relocated in 1818 because of severe earthquake

Mission Santa Clara de Asis
mission san buenaventura
Ninth mission

Founded on March 31, 1782 by Father Junipero Serra

Named for Saint Bonaventure

Should have been 3rd mission, but was postponed for twelve years

Prosperity of this mission came from irrigation, which was provided by a seven-mile aqueduct that brought water from the Ventura River

Mission San Buenaventura
mission santa barbara
Tenth mission

Founded on December 4, 1786 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for Saint Barbara

1st mission founded by Father Fermine Francisco de Lasuen

Included more than 200 rows of houses for the mission’s Native American residents

Mission Santa Barbara
la purisima conception
Eleventh mission

Founded on December 8, 1787 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for “The Immaculate Conception of Mary the Most Pure”

Prosperity from tireless work of Father Marino Payeras. He served for 19 years.

On December 21, 1812 a severe earthquake destroyed the mission.

La Purisima Conception
mission santa cruz
12th mission

Founded on August 28, 1791 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for the Sacred Cross

Criminal settlers from Mexico raided the mission’s crops and antagonized the Native Americans

Mission Santa Cruz
mission nuestra senora de la soledad
13th mission

Founded on October 9, 1791 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for Our Lady of Solitude

Salinas River allowed for irrigation to grow crops, and for livestock herding

Climate pushed Native Americans away

Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad
mission san jose
14th mission

Founded on July 11, 1797 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for Saint Joseph

First of five missions built in a 13 month period

Known as location for runaway Christianized Native Americans and hostile tribes

Served as a base for military operations for natives who resented the missionaries

Mission San Jose
mission san juan bautista
15th mission

Founded on June 24, 1797 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for John the Baptist

Sits on top of San Andreas Fault

Earthquake destroyed the original mission in October 1798

Mission San Juan Bautista
mission san miguel arcangel
16th mission

Founded on July 25, 1797 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for Saint Michael the Archangel

Filled up quickly with Native Americans in the area

Interior adorned by Spanish artist

Mission San Miguel Arcangel
mission san fernando rey de espana
17th mission

Founded on September 8, 1797 by Father Fermine Lausen

Also served as a church and a hospital

Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana
mission san luis rey de francia
18th mission

Founded on June 13, 1798 by Father Fermine Lausen

Named for Louis IX King of France (1215-1270)

Nicknamed “King of the Missions”

Largest and most populous of all missions

Building covers six acres and the Native American population reached 2,700 at its peak

Mission San Luis Rey de Francia
mission santa ines
19th mission

Founded on September 17, 1804 by Father Estevan Tapis

Named for Saint Anges

Last mission founded in Southern California, which completed the chain

Miles of flourished land that helped it flourish

1812 great earthquake destroyed half of the mission

Water brought from mountains several miles away

Mission Santa Ines
mission san rafael arcangel
20th mission

Founded on December 14, 1817 by Father Vicente de Sarria

Named for Saint Raphael the Archangel, patron saint of good health

Was originally dedicated as the sub-mission Mission Dolores

Served as a convalescent hospital for Christianized Native Americans

Mission San Rafael Arcangel
mission san francisco de solano
21st and last mission

Founded after Mexico’s Independence from Spain

Only mission founded without prior approval from the church

Founded on July 4, 1823 by Father Jose Altimira

Named for Saint Francis Solano, missionary to the Penivian Indians

Had flourishing vineyards

Father Altimira’s cruelty resulted in revolt

Mission San Francisco de Solano
now i challenge you
Now I Challenge You