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A Framework for Perceptual Studies in Photorealistic Augmented Reality. Martin Knecht 1 , Andreas Dünser 2 , Christoph Traxler 1 , Michael Wimmer 1 and Raphael Grasset 3. 1 Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms Vienna University of Technology. 2 HIT Lab NZ University of Canterbury.

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a framework for perceptual studies in photorealistic augmented reality

A Framework for Perceptual Studies in Photorealistic Augmented Reality

Martin Knecht1, Andreas Dünser2,Christoph Traxler1, Michael Wimmer1 and Raphael Grasset3

1 Institute of Computer Graphicsand Algorithms

Vienna University of Technology

2 HIT Lab NZ

University of Canterbury

3 HIT Lab NZ / ICG

University of Canterbury /Graz University of Technology

introduction
Introduction
  • Motivation
  • Perceptual Issues
  • Framework
  • Pilot Study
  • Limitations
  • Future Work
  • Conclusion

Martin Knecht

motivation
Motivation
  • Is this a photograph or computer generated?
  • What visual factors affect your decision? Rademacher P., et al. (2001)

Courtesy of Rademacher et al. (2001)

Martin Knecht

motivation1
Motivation
  • People are very good in judging if an image looks photo-realistic or notBut process behind it not fully understood!
  • In augmented reality (AR) virtual objects should be rendered in a photorealistic way
  • Goal: A framework that allows us to study photorealistic rendering techniques at real-time frame rates

Martin Knecht

perceptual issues
Perceptual Issues
  • Kruijff E., et al. (2010) distinguish between two types of problems:
    • Technological limitations
    • Perceptual nature
  • Proposed framework focuses on perceptual issues

Martin Knecht

perceptual pipeline
Perceptual Pipeline
  • Perceptual pipeline used to classify issuesKruijff E., et al. (2010)

Environment

Capturing

AR Framework

Augmentation

Display Device

User

Martin Knecht

capturing augmentation stages
Capturing / Augmentation Stages
  • Capturing: Covers the process of converting the optical image to a digital one Kruijff E., et al. (2010)
    • Image resolution, lens distortion,exposure, color correctness,…
  • Augmentation: Deals with adding the virtual objects into the augmented sceneKruijff E., et al. (2010)
    • Registration errors, occlusion, rendering,…

Martin Knecht

framework
Framework
  • Our contribution:
    • Framework to study photorealistic rendering techniques
    • Interactive tasks with global illumination
    • Three different rendering modes
    • Fast prototyping of experiments (XML)
    • A pilot study to test framework

Martin Knecht

framework1
Framework
  • Differential instant radiosity is used to render the scenes Knecht M., et al. (2010)
  • Rendering modes can be changed during run-time
    • Mode A: shadows / indirect illumination
    • Mode B: shadows / indirect illumination
    • Mode C: shadows / indirect illumination

Martin Knecht

rendering mode a
Rendering Mode A
  • Different rendering modes are supported
    • No shadows
    • No indirect illumination

Martin Knecht

rendering mode b
Rendering Mode B
  • Different rendering modes are supported
    • With shadows
    • No indirect illumination

Martin Knecht

rendering mode c
Rendering Mode C
  • Different rendering modes are supported
    • With shadows
    • With indirect illumination

Martin Knecht

pilot study
Pilot Study
  • Pilot study to evaluate our framework
  • Twenty-one participants (15 male, 6 female)
  • Age between 19 – 59
  • 5 tasks

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pilot study1
Pilot Study
  • Task 1: Estimate distance between real and virtual cubes

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pilot study2
Pilot Study
  • Task 2: Place real cube at position of virtual one

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pilot study3
Pilot Study
  • Task 3: Place virtual cube at position of real one using computer keyboard

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pilot study4
Pilot Study
  • Task 4: Grab and lift real cube

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pilot study5
Pilot Study
  • Task 5: Grab and lift virtual cube - real cube was used for tactile feedback

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pilot study6
Pilot Study
  • Duration: 30 to 60 minutes
  • Interview followed afterwards
  • Measured
    • Distance error for tasks 1, 2, 3
    • Time for tasks 2, 3, 4, 5
  • Analyzed data using non-parametric Friedman tests
  • Result: No significant effect of rendering technique found

Martin Knecht

pilot study7
Pilot Study

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pilot study8
Pilot Study

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pilot study9
Pilot Study
  • Distance estimation perceived easier by 6 participants in left/right and height direction than in depth
    • Although no significant effect was found

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pilot study10
Pilot Study
  • Participants made heavy use of occlusion cue to place cubes in Task 2 & 3 – (19 out of 20)

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pilot study11
Pilot Study
  • 7 participants preferred manipulation with a computer keyboard (Task 2 vs. Task 3).

Martin Knecht

limitations
Limitations
  • No support for stereo rendering
  • No distance information of environment
  • Only video see-through HMDs are supported
  • Tone-mapping still needs manual fine tuning
  • No support for mobile devices

Martin Knecht

future work
Future Work
  • Enhance rendering framework
    • Support for stereo rendering
    • Add camera artifacts
  • New studies with new tasks
    • Tasks without occlusion information
    • Use chin rest to reduce movement
    • Design new tasks

Martin Knecht

conclusion
Conclusion
  • We proposed a research test-bed for perceptual studies – still work in progress
  • Different rendering modes allow new kind of experiments
  • We showed the results of a pilot study using our framework

Martin Knecht

slide28
Thank you for your attention!
  • What features would you like to have in such a framework?

Martin Knecht