Planning for Sustainable Cultural PlacesCollaborate to InnovateMAV Local Government, Arts & Culture ForumMelbourne, 23 August 2018
Lyon: the Charter on Cultural Cooperation (1/2) • Lyon has a strong record of cultural investment, but recognised that mainstream cultural organisations rarely reached large segments of the population • Since the mid-1990s, local cultural policies have been integrated in approaches to urban development • The Charter on Cultural Cooperation commits cultural organisations to work with educational, social, business and cultural partners so as to enhance access and participation • Large organisations (museums, theatre companies, Opera theatre, etc.) engage to work regularly with other agents
Lyon: the Charter on Cultural Cooperation (2/2) • A range of goals have been established, including work in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, supporting grassroots projects, fostering learning, creativity and innovation, social inclusion, etc. • Signed every 4 years since 2004, it currently involves 27 stakeholders and 24 metropolitan councils, as well as national government • Impacts have been observed in areas including enhanced access to cultural activities, recognition of diverse practices, stronger citizen participation, enhanced self-esteem in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, etc.
1. Strengthening culture and its role vis-à-vis urban challenges
The Agenda 21 for culture • Barcelona, 2004 • Guidance to local governments aiming to integrate cultural policies and sustainable development • Used by 750+ local govts, also civil society orgs., etc. • Promoted by United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG)
THIS IS OUR MAIN NARRATIVE: “Culture is a dimension of Sustainable Development” CULTURE SOCIAL INCLUSION SOCIAL INCLUSION ECONOMY ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT
Key messages • Culture is an essential dimension of sustainable development • Cultural rights provide legitimacy for cultural policies based on access, participation, heritage, diversity, creativity, etc. • Sustainable cities should explore interaction between economic, social, environmental and cultural policies • Local governments have a fundamental role in this context • Cultural development should involve partnerships between public, private and civil society actors • International networking can facilitate learning among cities
Culture 21: Actions – a practical toolkit • 100 actions grouped under 9 thematic ‘commitments’
Example: Bilbao • Following severe industrial decline, since the late 1980s Bilbao has invested in culture as an engine of urban transformation, with visible impacts in employment (5% of local jobs), tourism, local self-esteem, new city narrative • Besides large facilities and events (e.g. Guggenheim Museum, festivals), support is provided to small companies and entrepreneurs • Bilbao adhered to Agenda 21 for culture in 2005 and has progressively placed emphasis on cultural participation and inclusion
Example: Hamilton, Canada • In 2004, the City Council requested staff to explore the development of a Cultural Plan • Discussions suggested the city should move from single-stream services (e.g. museums) to a holistic approach to culture • A multi-phased process started in 2008, involving 1) baseline mapping of cultural assets and policy documents; 2) broad community engagement (2300 participants); and 3) adoption of Cultural Plan, with 8 ‘transformational’ goals (economic engine, downtown renewal, creativity for all, etc.) • Cultural aspects have also been integrated in many other local strategies (environment, tourism, economy, neighbourhoods, urban indigenous strategy, etc.)
Advocacy and awareness-raising to support long-term development
3. Recognising and supporting plural, diverse cultural ecosystems
Culture as ecosystem • Sustainable cultural development requires both large and small organisations, active in all artforms, representing diverse aesthetics and styles, etc. • The equal value of different forms of expression and knowledge, including traditional knowledge, should be recognised • Support for the most fragile elements and for cooperation and dialogue among stakeholders is important • Likewise, it is convenient to pay attention to the successive stages of the cultural value chain (creation, production, distribution, access)
Example: Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain) • Recognised as a UNESCO Creative City of Film, Terrassa hosts a renowned film school, a film archive and a major film production centre, comprising studios, a business incubator and an enterprise cluster. • In recent years, measures have been adopted to foster inclusive access to films, media education and training opportunities • This is part of a broader approach to local cultural policy which places emphasis on participation, cultural activities in public space, heritage preservation and support for new creative works, among others
4. Access and participation in cultural life is everyone’s right
Access to culture is a human right, and can contribute to social inclusion • Acknowledging and preserving heritage, fostering everyone’s creativity and recognising diverse identities and expressions contribute to human dignity, that which makes life worth living • Active participation in cultural life can enhance social inclusion, by fostering expression, enabling the visibility of minorities, fostering mutual recognition and cooperation, etc. • Cultural factors (values, traditions, customs, etc.) can promote or obstruct access to key services (health, education, employment, etc.) • Local cultural policies should pay particular attention to disadvantaged or vulnerable groups, and the factors that can enable or hinder access to culture
Some examples • Barcelona: the ‘Creators in residence’ project fosters partnerships between secondary schools and artists, involving students in creative processes • Bogotá: annual call supports cultural projects targeting disadvantaged groups in peripheral urban neighbourhoods, building their capacities • Glasgow: broadening of artforms and expressions that deserve public support enhanced confidence and entrepreneurship among community groups • Seattle: in the light of rising prices that limit affordability of working spaces, a mixed working group met to identify support measures, including incentives for cultural spaces, temporary permits, etc.
5. Sustainable cultural planning is a shared responsibility, which requires innovation in governance frameworks
Participation in cultural decision-making • Many stakeholders contribute to sustainable cultural life: artists, community groups, Councils, private venues, citizens, national authorities, universities, etc • Both at the stages of planning and later in implementation and monitoring, opportunities should be sought to involve all relevant actors and foster adaptation, collaboration and ownership
Some examples • Participatory consultations leading to the adoption of cultural strategies / action plans, e.g. Nillumbik, Yarra Ranges, Concepción (Chile), Washington DC, etc. • Networks or platforms of community groups engaged in cultural development, e.g. Montreal, Busan (South Korea), etc. • Permanent, ‘horizontal’ frameworks of reflection and policy design on culture, e.g. Izmir (Turkey), Lake Mégantic (Canada), Seongbuk (South Korea), etc.
Planning for Sustainable Cultural PlacesJordi Baltàjordi.firstname.lastname@example.orgCollaborate to InnovateMAV Local Government, Arts & Culture ForumMelbourne, 23 August 2018