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  1. Training strategies & Session planning

  2. Training strategies Session objective; • learn what training strategies is • be able to apply the strategies learnt

  3. What is training strategy the appropriate means to achieving the defined goals and objectives

  4. Strategies Enhancing Knowledge • Learner will understand the facts/information therefore the strategy is to: • provide the facts and information in a way that it will be retained for future use

  5. Strategies Developing Skills Learner will be able to “do something” therefore the strategy is to: • demonstrate or provide instructions to practice with feedback to correct mistakes

  6. Strategies Clarifying Attitudes Learners will adopt new values,perspectives therefore the strategy is to: • provide an opportunity for self analysis through feedback and value clarification exercises

  7. Session planning A logical approach to effective planning; THE FLOW CHART

  8. Training Medium • Training Medium • Major Types • Elements • OHP/Powerpoint • Audio & Video • Slide Projector • Flip Chart/White Boards • Felt Boards • Flash Cards

  9. Training Medium Medium available to ensure that the communication is clear, understandable, and as effective as possible.

  10. Training Medium • Benefits • Retention • Impact • Understanding • Attention

  11. Training Medium: Major Types • Overhead Projector • Audio & Video • Slide projector • Flip Charts/White Boards • Felt boards • Flash cards

  12. Training Medium:Elements • Graphics: for summarizing information through drawings, words, symbols, pictures • Tables: for showing categories in sequence • Charts: for summarizing data, explaining process, describing a set of relationships • Posters: for display in public place to attract attention to reinforce ideas, attitudes

  13. Training Medium: OHP/Powerpoint • Useful for: • Sub-titles of lecture: with short supporting text • Definitions • Graphics • Tables

  14. Training Medium: OHP/Powerpoint • Things to be noted • font size is large to be seen by those at the back • visuals are in correct sequence & numbered • check the equipment in advance • read off the glass/screen • you are not blocking someone’s view • turn it off when not in use • electricity is guaranteed; back-up needed

  15. Training Medium: OHP/Powerpoint • Rules for making transparencies: • Main Title: Minimum 24 font size • Sub-titles: minimum 20 font size • Text: minimum 18 font size • Lines: not more than seven lines on each transparency • At least 2 different font types

  16. Training Medium: Audio & Video • Useful for • individualised learning, distance learning, small group instruction • Pre-recorded speeches of experts • demonstrate real/simulated events • demonstrates actions/reactions

  17. Training Medium: Audio & Video • Things to note • pre-test the equipment • ensure that the cassettes are in starting point • ensure that the sound and picture quality is audible and visible • the physical environment is quiet and dark • avoid audio and video aids soon after a heavy meal

  18. Training Medium: Slide Projector • Useful for: • to show outside events inside the room • photographs of processes • scenic photos to change the mood of the participants • to have an impact & emphasise the area under discussion

  19. Training Medium: Slide Projector • Things to note: • pre-test the equipment • ensure that slides are in the right order • ensure picture quality is visible • the physical environment is quiet and dark • supplement the visuals with explanations

  20. Training Medium: Flip Charts/White Boards • Useful for: • writing the main points or structure of session in advance • writing down the input provided by the participants as it comes • writing important points during the session

  21. Training Medium: Flip Charts/White Boards • Things to note: • use large, readable letters; avoid using full capital letters • don’t speak as you write. turn to the audience while speaking • avoid spelling errors • ensure that those at the back can read • use chiseled tipped markers for thicker, more visible writing

  22. Training Medium: Felt Boards • Useful for: • Cut outs • Display of flash cards • Display of chart paper • Display of outcomes of group work

  23. Training Medium: Felt Boards • Things to note: • ensure that the board is placed in view of all participants • ensure that materials on the board are visible to all in the room • ensure that there is sufficient amount of board pins to place the material

  24. Training Medium: Flash Cards • Useful for: • writing and placing participants’ input in a few words • writing the main points and placing them on the felt board as you speak • re-categorising ideas put on the cards after a brainstorming session

  25. Training Medium: Flash Cards • Things to note: • only one or two words can be written • large writing is required • avoid using too many cards especially for a large group • colour combination can be used for categorising

  26. CHOOSING APPROPRIATE TRAINING TECHNIQUES Knowledge (facts/information) • Learner will understand Training Activities Reading, songs, lectures, brainstorming, TV, radio, audio-tapes, video, computer, programmed instruction, debate, panel, interview, galleries-work stations, field trips

  27. CHOOSING APPROPRIATE TRAINING TECHNIQUES Skills • Learner will be able to do something Training Activities Demonstration or instructions followed by practice with feedback to correct mistakes; role playing, in -basket exercises, drill, games, coaching, case studies, worksheets, simulations.

  28. CHOOSING APPROPRIATE TRAINING TECHNIQUES Attitudes Learners will Adopt new values, perspectives Training Activities Discussion, role play, role-modeling, values clarification exercise, film/video, case study, critical incidents, debate, games, self-analysis, feedback, simulation, field trips

  29. Monitoring & Evaluating Training

  30. Why evaluate? • corrective measures • ideas • what works and what does not • reinforcement • others

  31. EVALUATE, WHAT? • SATISFACTION • LEARNING • APPLICATION • PERFORMANCE Donald Kirkpatricks’ four level model, introduced in 1959

  32. EVALUATING SATISFACTION We want to know the participants estimation of the professionalism of; • the trainers • the quality of materials used • the pace of instruction “assessing the learning environment”

  33. EVALUATING LEARNING Have the participants acquired the KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS & ATTITUDE that was shared in the course of the training

  34. EVALUATING the “KSA’s” KNOWLEDGE: • Written exams • oral exams • application in other training activities

  35. EVALUATING the “KSA’s” SKILL: • observation on the job or in practical • role play • case studies with decision-making • development of product • training design • drama

  36. EVALUATING the “KSA’s” ATTITUDE: Indirectly by • observing behaviors • interpersonal relations • approaches to issues/problems • choices of activities

  37. EVALUATING APPLICATION Whether the participants have the intention to apply their learning followed up to check the initiatives

  38. EVALUATING PERFORMANCE Did the training make a measurable difference to the persons performance

  39. POST TRAINING MONITORING • Guidance, • Coaching and • Mentoring

  40. METHODOLOGIES • Survey questionnaire • Key informant interviews • Focus group interviews • Observation • Informal survey