Unit 6 What Challenges might face American Constitutional Democracy in the 21st Century?
Essential Question • What challenges might face American constitutional democracy in the 21st century?
Unit Overview • Lesson 33: What Does it Mean to be a Citizen? • Lesson 34: What Is the Importance of Civic Engagement to American Constitutional Democracy? • Lesson 35: How Have Civil Rights Movements Resulted in Fundamental Political and Social Change in the United States? • Lesson 36: How Have American Political Ideas and the American Constitutional System Influenced Other Nations? • Lesson 37: What Key Challenges Does the United States Face in the Future? • Lesson 38: What are the Challenges of the Participation of the United States in World Affairs? • Lesson 39: What Does Returning to Fundamental Principles Mean?
Unit 6 Purpose • This unit provides an overview of American citizenship and opportunities for participation in local, state and national government. • This unit also offers a frame of reference and basis for understanding how the American constitutional model has influenced other countries and international organizations. • Finally, you will consider some challenges facing American constitutionalism in the future.
Lesson 33: What Does it Mean to Be a Citizen? Created by Arlene Harris October 2011 Slideshow Accompanies The Center for Civic Education’s “We the People: The Citizen & The Constitution” Curriculum
Lesson 33 Purpose • This lesson discusses citizenship, how ideas about it have changed in the US, naturalization, dual citizenship and responsibilities of citizens and resident aliens. • Participation in government through the electoral process tacitly gives agreement to be governed by the Constitution. Most people at some point take an oath to support and defend the Constitution—in the military, as a juror, lawyer, teacher, or other way. This lesson discusses these ways.
Lesson 33 Objectives • Explain some of the most important legal rights and obligations of citizens. • Explain some of the most important moral rights and obligations of citizens. • Explain the different ways one may become an American citizen. • Evaluate, take, and defend positions on • How American citizenship was defined before the 14th and later amendments. • How the rights and responsibilities of citizens differ from those of naturalized aliens
Lesson 33 Terms & Concepts • Alien • A person not living in the country of his/her citizenship; foreign-born resident • Citizen • Legal member of a nation, country, or other organized, self-governing political community, such as a state • Denaturalization • To lose or renounce one’s citizenship; a legal process • Dual national citizenship • To be a legal citizen of two or more countries at the same time
Lesson 33 Terms & Concepts • Enlightened self-interest • Philosophy of ethics stating people who act to further interests of others ultimately serve their own self-interest • E pluribus unum • Latin: Out of many, one • Jus sanguinis • Right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognized to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state • Jus soli • Right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognized to any individual born in the territory of the related state • Naturalization • To be come a citizen of a country not of one’s birth, legal process • Resident Alien • A noncitizen who lives in a country legally not of one’s birth
How have Americans Thought of Citizenship? • Commonwealths: a self-governing community in which members are expected to serve the good of all. • The Founders counted on citizens as self-sufficient individuals capable of meeting most of their own needs and would thrive in a system of limited government
How did deTocqueville Connect Good Citizenship with Self-Interest in the United States? • Democracy in America • While impressed with equality of opportunity in American society • Wondered how a society so devoted to materialism and pursuit of individual self-interest could produce civic spirit needed for self-government • He argued they found a way to bridge the gap between classical republican virtue and natural rights self-interest • Quote on 245
How Have Ideas about Citizenship Changed in the United States? • From British subjects to colonial citizens • To a particular state and eventually to the “united” states • Philadelphia Convention delegates left citizenship issue to the states; 1787 Constitution, then the Articles of Confederation 1781-1788 continued to do so
Who are Naturalized Citizens and What Should be the Criteria for Naturalization? • Naturalization is a legal process to become a US citizen. • It can be granted to individuals or entire populations by statute or treaty. • It is tied to immigration policy • Only lawfully admitted aliens can become citizens • At least 18 years old • Resided in US continuously for at least five years • Good moral character • Can read, write, speak, and understand English • Demonstrate a belief in and commitment to the US Constitution principles • Take the Oath of Allegiance
How has Citizenship Status of Native Americans Evolved? • Constitution Article I suggests they are separate, sovereign nations • 1831, Supreme Court changed the interpretation saying they are “domestic dependent nations” • 1924, Indian Citizenship Act made them citizens of the US and states where they reside. • Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 includes protecting the “sovereignty of each tribal government.”
What is Dual National Citizenship? • Being a citizen of two countries • Children of American citizens who are born abroad are American • Dual citizenship for Americans is not currently addressed by law.
How May US Citizenship be Lost? • Supreme Court held that stripping natural-born citizens of their citizenship is cruel and unusual punishment, therefore illegal to do • Giving up US citizenship is a “natural and inherent right of the people” • US citizenship may be revoked for: • Becoming a naturalized citizen elsewhere • Swearing an oath of allegiance to another country • Renouncing citizenship formally • Being convicted of the crime of treason
What are the Rights of Citizens and Permanent Residents? • Usually, only citizens can hold public office • Residency requirements usually accompany citizenship requirements for holding office • Only the president must be a natural born citizen of the US • Only citizens can vote • Territories such as Puerto Rico do not vote in national elections in their territorial homes • Many states revoke voting rights of convicted felons. • Most other rights are the same for both
What are the Responsibilities of Citizens and Resident Aliens? • Everyone has a duty to obey the laws and pay taxes • Citizens have additional responsibilities: • Voting • Serving on juries
Lesson 34: What is the Importance of Civic Engagement to American Constitutional Democracy? Created by Arlene Harris October 2011 Slideshow Accompanies The Center for Civic Education’s “We the People: The Citizen & The Constitution” Curriculum
Lesson 34 Purpose • Popular sovereignty means people have ultimate governing authority, which carries the responsibility to exercise that authority knowledgeably to balance individual interests and the common good. • This lesson describes ways Americans can participate in civic life to help achieve ideals set for themselves and their nation. • It explains how civic engagement can advance both self-interest and common good. • It also discusses issues related to voting and voting turnout.
Lesson 34 Objectives • Describe needed reforms to • Education system • Political process • The Constitution • Explain opportunities for participation in civil life afforded by • Voluntary associations • NGOs • Service and business organizations • Voting • Evaluate, take and defend positions on • Whether voting should be mandatory • How voting could be easier/more convenient
Lesson 34 Terms & Concepts • Nongovernmental organization • An autonomous organization independent of direct governmental control that exists to perform any of a large number of purposes, including humanitarian, educational, or public policy problems and issues • Voluntary associations • Autonomous organizations founded and administered by private citizens, not elected officials, devotes to one or more purposes. They form an essential element of the social basis of democracy • Voter registration • Requirement in some democracies for citizens to enroll in voting rolls before being allowed to participate in elections
Why Should Americans Participate in the Civic Life of the Country? • It helps individuals become attached to their community, region, state, country • They become more likely to vote • They are more likely to be well informed
How do Voluntary Associations Contribute to Civic Engagement? • Become engaged in civic projects • Commit to making things better • Work toward a common goal • Types: • Religious • Social: book clubs, sports, women’s, athletics, school, scholarship • Service: Kiwanis, Lions, Jaycees, Rotary • Business: medical/disease, profession, industry • Nongovernmental organizations—NGOs: usually classified by focus i.e. disaster relief, health care, economic development, environmental protection; service or social groups • Carter Center, League of Women Voters, • Actively lobby for causes and do public education
How can Americans Participate in Local and State Governments? • Elect, oversee representatives • Local: councils, commissions, school districts, advisory boards, review boards • State: inform one’s self about issues and candidates, elect judges, boards to study and make recommendations regarding matters such as • Child welfare • Drug and alcohol programs • Environmental protection
How Can Americans Participate in the National Government? • More limited than state/local • Political parties • Get involved in campaigns • Get voters out to vote • Have a voice in shaping policy, platforms, and goals • Advisory groups of constituents to representatives • Communicate with representatives
What Needs to be Done to Encourage Voter Turnout? Elections are administered at the state and local level with help from the Federal Election Commission Voter registration is done by local and state officials Absentee/early voting is more popular now Should presidential election days be national holidays? Should polling places be open 24 hours or multiple days?
How is Civic Participation Connected to Self-Interest? • Personal interest—economic, quality of life • Acquiring skills • Learn how to affect decisions • Become more self confident • Develop contacts • Build a reputation as important member of community • Make new friends • Self-interest can be “enlightened” or narrow
How is Civic Participation Related to Advancing the Common Good? • Makes people aware of other perspectives • Leads to concerns for the common good • Individuals see themselves related to the larger whole • Modify behavior to serve the needs of the whole • Strengthens network of interdependence
Lesson 35: How Have Civil Rights Movements Resulted in Fundamental Political and Social Change in the United States? Created by Arlene Harris Slideshow Accompanies The Center for Civic Education’s “We the People: The Citizen & The Constitution” Curriculum
Lesson 35 Purpose • The Declaration of Independence is celebrated for its commitment to the principles of human liberty and equality. • This lesson examines why African Americans, women, and other groups found it necessary to take concerted action to ensure recognition of their civil rights.
Lesson 35 Objectives • Explain the importance of the • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Discuss the role of civil disobedience in America’s constitutional democracy.
Lesson 35 Terms & Concepts • Civil disobedience • Nonviolent refusal to obey laws that citizens regard as unjust or in protest of specific public policy • Civil rights • Rights belonging to an individual by virtue of citizenship • De facto segregation • Racial segregation not mandated by law • De jure segregation • Racial segregation mandated by law
What was the Status of Civil Rights in Mid-Twentieth Century America • De jure segregation: • Separation required by law • De facto segregation: • Racial separation caused by actions of private individuals and groups • Brown: implied all laws compelling racial separation violate guarantee of equal protection of the laws • Racial segregation and discrimination was deeply entrenched: slavery almost 250 years, Jim Crow after the Civil War, US Army desegregated in 1948 • National government usually deferred to state
What were the Origins of the Modern Civil Rights Movement for African Americans and What were Its goals? • KKK and Jim Crow • Religious, social, political associations nurtured networks of communication and resistance • NAACP, 1909 founded • Influenced by Gandhi • Civil disobedience is usually nonviolent direct action • Preparation and education was key; political organization, social nonviolent action—sit ins, protests, marches, boycotts, demonstrations • Goal: overturn laws, protect right to vote
What is the Civil Rights Act? • 1963: demonstrations throughout the South, some met with violence • Kennedy announced he would ask Congress for civil rights legislation; killed 3 months later • Johnson signed Civil Rights Act 1964 • Most far-reaching civil rights law in US history, • outlawed de jure and de facto segregation • Discrimination in hotels, restaurants, theaters, gas stations, airline terminals, public accommodation sites • Prohibit job discrimination by businesses and labor unions • More national government authority to end school segregation • US Justice Dept to file lawsuits against states discriminating against women and minorities
What is the Voting Rights Act? • 1965 march: Selma to Montgomery • Alabama gov sent troops: clubbed and beat marchers, killed one • Prohibits discrimination by race • Eliminates literacy tests, poll taxes, discriminatory registration practices • Requires state and local to provide voting materials and assistance in appropriate langue based on # voters • 2006--extended
What is the Role of Civil Disobedience as a Form of Political Participation? • Used against slavery, in woman suffrage & civil rights movements • King and Thoreau: individuals should obey their conscience. “When conscience and law conflict, individuals have moral responsibility to promote justice by disobeying law” • Critics: never justified, weakens respect for law, makes individual “final” judge—not the law • Defenders: can be no other final judge than individual conscience; laws are not necessarily just; there are higher moral laws which shape moral consciousness; unjust breeds disorder, seeking more just society may promote order rather than undermine it
How has the Movement for Civil Rights Changed since the Mid-Twentieth Century? • Focus changed from race-centric • Voter registration • Increase minimum wage • Better health care for HIV/AIDS • High-quality public education for minority children • Farm workers • Chavez & Huerta • Better work conditions • Pesticides • Boycotts, strikes, protests • UFW • Native Americans • Substandard housing • Unemployment • Police brutality • Discrimination • AIM
Lesson 36: How Have American Political Ideas and the American Constitutional System Influenced Other Nations? Created by Arlene Harris Slideshow Accompanies The Center for Civic Education’s “We the People: The Citizen & The Constitution” Curriculum
Lesson 36 Purpose • This lesson examines some of the challenges associated with using the American constitutional model in other parts of the world
Lesson 36 Objectives • Identify which aspects of the American constitutional system have been influential elsewhere. • Explain why some countries and international organizations have chosen to modify the American system or to use other types of democratic systems. • Explain how the US Bill of Rights influenced other countries and how some have adopted bills of rights considerably different from the US. • Evaluate, take, and defend positions on why some aspects of American constitutional democracy that have been effective in the US were not used in other countries.
Lesson 36 Term & Concepts • Human rights • Basic rights and freedoms said to belong to all people everywhere • Universal Declaration of Human Rights • An advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1948, consisting of thirty articles outlining the view of the General Assembly on those rights conceived as guaranteed to all people
How have American Ideas about Government and Human Rights Influenced Other Parts of the World? • Constitutional principals: popular sovereignty, individual rights, limited government, rule of law • Inspired French Revolution, 1789 • 1791 Constitutions: France, Poland • 1800s: Latin American countries free from Spain, model for republic gov’t • 1825: Russia, unsuccessful but inspired • 20th century: • German constitution 1949—freedoms: religion, assembly, speech, press, expression • Afghanistan, Bosnia, Herzegovina, East Timor, Eritrea, Iraq, Poland, South Africa, Venezuela • After Cold War: former communist states experiment with constitutionalism of their own
What Elements of American Constitutionalism have Influenced other Countries? • World’s first written framework for national government: US Constitution • Set standard for using convention to draft constitutions, then submit to people for ratification • Presidential government—head of state, elected, cannot be removed by vote of no confidence • Federalism—separate and overlapping powers • Judicial power & human rights—judicial review is an enforcement mechanism; need independent judiciary
How do Other Guarantees of Rights Differ from the Bill of Rights? • Bill of Rights: individual personal, economic, political rights; includes “negative” rights—gov’t “shall not”… • Contemporary charters of human rights assert positive rights—health care, education, equal pay for equal work, fair and just working conditions
How is the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights Similar to and Different from the Bill of Rights? FDR asked Congress to adopt laws that would become a 2nd Bill of Rights; didn’t happen His widow used this to help the UN craft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • 30 articles; US agreed in 1948 • Personal liberty outlawed coerced or arranged marriages, slavery • Habeas corpus and equal protection • Prohibition of ex post facto laws • Freedom of assembly, religion, speech, association, property rights, sanctity of home and correspondence • Prohibition of torture • Duty to community • Right to work, join unions, equal pay • Rest and leisure, reasonable work hours, periodic paid holidays • Adequate standard of living for health and well-being • Education • To seek, receive, and impart information and ideas via media • Regional agreements expanded it with European Court of Human Rights • Protection of rights is now important diplomatically
Lesson 37: What Key Challenges Does the United States Face in the Future? Created by Arlene Harris October 2011 Slideshow Accompanies The Center for Civic Education’s “We the People: The Citizen & The Constitution” Curriculum
Lesson 37 Purpose • This lesson examines some of the challenges that might affect Americans in coming years. • It also explores issues that might lead to future possible changes to the United States Constitution.
Lesson 37 Objectives • Discuss the effects of diversity and technology on the lives of Americans • Explain the importance of civil discourse in debating divisive issues • Evaluate, take, and defend positions on the changing expectations of America’s government and potential constitutional amendments