The World at War WWI. I. Lead up to WWI. In 1914, three powers—Britain, France, and Germany—controlled about 80 % of the world's inhabited surface. They also possessed about half of the world's industrial might and their merchants controlled half the world's international trade.
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The World at War WWI
I. Lead up to WWI In 1914, three powers—Britain, France, and Germany—controlled about 80 % of the world's inhabited surface. They also possessed about half of the world's industrial might and their merchants controlled half the world's international trade.
Differing Viewpoints • “Family Feud” • “Fall of the Eagles” • “The War to End All Wars” • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI • M: Militarism- Build up of military, glorifying military power, arms race • A: Alliances- Agreements between countries • I: Imperialism- Race for Territory • N: Nationalism- my country is more important than yours, causes rivalries between countries
The Powder Keg • Any area that has a volatile (explosive) mix of people. For WWI this area is the Balkans
“The Spark” • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungry: next in line to the throne • Killed by a Serbian while he was visiting Bosnia • (this will make more sense soon) Gavrilo Princip
The Players The Players
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
Austria-Hungary • Annexed Bosnia (Serbia got mad) • Declared war on Serbia after a Serbian Nationalist kills Archduke Ferdinand (the Spark)
Serbia • Newer nation: Want more influence in the area…Bosnia! • Austria took it: they got mad…Nationalist killed Ferdinand
Germany • Long time allies with Austria: Support Austria in “punishing” Serbia for killing Ferdinand
Russia • Allies with Serbia • They want influence in the Balkans • Wanted to prove they were still tough (lost a recent war with Japan)
France • France = ally with Russia…when Russia Fought so did France • France had lost a war with Germany and wanted revenge
Britain • Germany was a threat to British colonies and Navy…Britain doesn’t want that • Germany declared war with Belgium…Britain is their ally Video: causes
Alliances • Triple Alliance / Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungry, & Italy • Triple Entente/ Allies Britain, France, Russia, and Italy
YIKES! • 1. July 5 - Kaiser Wilhelm issued a 'blank check'. He said that Germany would support whatever the Austrian government decided to do. • 2. July 23 - The Austrian government sent the Serbian government an ultimatum. • 3. July 25 - The Serbians accepted all the conditions except one • 4. July 28 - Austria-Hungary declared war upon Serbia. • 5. July 29 - The Russian army was mobilized. • 6. Aug 1 - Germany declared war on Russia. • 7. Aug 3 - Germany declared war on France. • 8. Aug 4 - Germany declared war on Belgium. • 9. Aug 4 - Britain declared war upon Germany. • 10. Aug 6 - Austria declared war on Russia. • 11. Aug12 - France and Britain declared war on Austria. A little over a month to world war…..
And more…. • Don’t forget the colonies…. • Over 30 countries become involved eventually • Where are the British?
Who’s To Blame? Was the war inevitable?? Could it have stopped??
Total War • Total War: complete mobilization of ALL parts of society in the war effort • Impacts all people in the society, even if they are not fighting • Leads to increased government powers: controlling trade, food rations, production of goods • Increased job opportunities for women
The Western Front • Germany hopes for a quick end to the war to avoid a two front war: FAILED • Schlieffen Plan: Germany will attack France by going through Belgium • Stopped a little way from Paris at the Marne • Two sides face off and dig in: TRENCH WARFARE
Trench Warfare Hundreds of miles of trenches Up to 5 ft high stacks of barbed wire Machine-gun ‘nests’ Heavy artillery in the back Barracks (living quarters) dug under the ground “No Man’s Land” in between trenches Communication trenches dug between
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land” HH over the top
The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
“My memories are of sheer terror and the horror of seeing men sobbing because they had trench foot that had turned gangrenous. They knew they were going to lose a leg. Memories of lice in your clothing driving you crazy. Filth and lack of privacy. Of huge rats that showed no fear of you as they stole your food rations. And cold deep wet mud everywhere. And of course, corpses. I'd never seen a dead body before I went to war. But in the trenches the dead are lying all around you. You could be talking to the fellow next to you when suddenly he'd be hit by a sniper and fall dead beside you. And there he's stay for days.” -Arthur Savage Serious over the top HH wee
Rats came up from the canal, fed on the plentiful corpses, and multiplied exceedingly. While I stayed here with the Welch. a new officer joined the company and, in token of welcome, was given a dug-out containing a spring-bed. When he turned in that night he heard a scuffling, shone his torch on the bed, and found two rats on his blanket tussling for the possession of a severed hand." Robert Graves, Goodbye to All That (1929)"I saw some rats running from under the dead man’s greatcoat, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies... the skull was bare, stripped of flesh, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat." Original source unknown
“If you have never had trench feet described to you. I will tell you. Your feet swell to two or three times their normal size and go completely dead. You could stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are fortunate enough not to lose your feet and the swelling begins to go down. It is then that the intolerable, indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and even scream with the pain and many had to have their feet and legs amputated.” -Sergeant Harry Roberts, Lancashire Trench Foot
Tactics • Bomb the other side to shock the enemy and flatten barbed wire: “shell shock” • “Over the Top:” work your way to the enemy trenches • War of Attrition: Wear the other side down
Verdun – February, 1916 • 10 months of fighting over a few miles of trenches • 700,000 dead
The Somme – July-Nov, 1916 • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. • Total gain? 7 miles…
Eastern Front • Much more mobile but just as many casualties • Austria-Hungary defeated by Russia • Italy turned against Germany and attacked Austria • Russians defeated by combined German/Austrian army • Germany defeated Serbia: now East is “pacified” and Germany can focus on the Western Front
“Colonial Front” • Fighting that took place in the colonies • India • Africa • Greece
Russian Revolution • Russians on the Eastern Front refuse to fight • February Revolution: Tsar Alexander abdicates his throne • October Revolution: Communists take over the government
War in the Air • 1915: first time airplanes are used in war • Used at first as ‘spy planes’ to target the enemies position, then began attacking • Germans used Zeppelins: air balloons used to bomb cities
War at Sea • Britain used their navy to blockade Germany: keeping supplies out of Germany • Germany responds with Unrestricted Submarine Warfare: Sink military and civilian boats
Entry of the US into the War • US tried to remain neutral • Germany sank the ship Lusitania: 100 Americans died • Zimmerman Telegram : letter from Germany to Mexico: asks Mexico to wage war with America
“War Girls” There's the girl who clips your ticket for the train,And the girl who speeds the lift from floor to floor,There's the girl who does a milk-round in the rain,And the girl who calls for orders at your door. Strong, sensible, and fit,They're out to show their grit,And tackle jobs with energy and knack.No longer caged and penned up,They're going to keep their end upTill the khaki boys come marching back. There's the motor girl who drives a heavy van,There's the butcher girl who brings your joint of meat, There's the girl who cries 'All fares, please!' like a man,And the girl who whistles taxis up the street. Beneath each uniformBeats a heart that's soft and warm, Though of canny mother-wit they show no lack;But a solemn statement this is, They've no time for love and kisses Till the khaki soldier boys come marching home. -Jessie Pope
III. New Technology The first “Industrial War”
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Poison Gas Machine Gun
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died