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Lecture 2 Democracy in International Organizations March 27th 2007, 18-00-20.00

LUISS – Ph. D. in Political Theory Via Oreste Tommasini, 1, Room 111 Problems of International Organization A cycle of five lectures Prof. Daniele Archibugi. Lecture 2 Democracy in International Organizations March 27th 2007, 18-00-20.00. How should this change International Organisations?.

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Lecture 2 Democracy in International Organizations March 27th 2007, 18-00-20.00

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  1. LUISS – Ph. D. in Political TheoryVia Oreste Tommasini, 1, Room 111Problems of International OrganizationA cycle of five lecturesProf. Daniele Archibugi Lecture 2 Democracy in International Organizations March 27th 2007, 18-00-20.00

  2. How should this change International Organisations?

  3. The Democratic Criteria in International Organizations • Based on a Charter or a formal agreement • Legal norms • Publicity of acts • Principle of equality of the participants • Decisions taken by adding up preferences (not necessarily equality of votes)

  4. The democratic criteria not applied in international organisations • Majority rule • Actions in the interest of everybody and not just of a majority • Respect of the minorities • Much greater abuse of the existing legal norms • Members are states and not individuals

  5. The democratic schizophrenia Democracy is becoming a “universal” value, which Western countries could decide to enforce anywhere But there is no intention to extend the values of democracy also beyond state borders or in international organisations

  6. A Theory of Democracy • Nonviolence in the public sphere (Popper, Bobbio) • Popular control on decision-making and decision-makers (David Beetham) • Political equality among citizens in participation and on exercising control (David Beetham)

  7. Nonviolence:Is it possible to apply the principle selectively? • Technically, certainly it is. Democratic states have traditionally applied a different way to use force within and without the community

  8. Different methods at home and abroadPericles and Bush

  9. How a condition of external treat or of war endanger a democracy • Security becomes stronger at expenses of transparency and control • The military power dominates the civilian • Offensive behaviour against external agents

  10. Political control is not allowed • Governments are accountable to their citizens only • Foreign policy is dominated by secrecy, as the practice of diplomacy continues to show

  11. Lack of political equality • A standard principle of democracy is that all persons affected by a decision should have a say • In a world made by “overlapping communities of fate” (David Held), this is more easy to say than to do

  12. How to export democracy?

  13. Cosmopolitan Democracyas a political project A normative approach to political theory • David Held, Mary Kaldor, Richard Falk • Jurgen Habermas, Ulrich Beck • Andrew Linklater, Tony McGrew and other IR normative theorists • Social Forums, Patomaki & Teivenen

  14. The Enemies of Global Democracy • Enemies of democracy: good to fight against them! • Other critics by democratic theorists: ---- Global democracy it is not possible ---- Global democracy it is not desirable ---- Global democracy it is not needed

  15. Global democracy is not possible no. 1 Realist approach to international relations stress the role of interests in world politics (Zolo, Buzan) But: how come that democracy has won within states? Any global democracy will be the outcome of a conflict (our understanding informed on agonistic democracy)

  16. Global democracy is not possibleno. 2 Lack of a global demos (Dahl). But: the demos has been created in the United States. What about the European Union? And a political community is not necessarily a cultural community.

  17. Seattle, 1999

  18. London, 15 February 20032 millions

  19. Rome, 15 February 20033 millions

  20. Antarctica, 15 February 2003

  21. Global Social Movements • They are not a global demos • But they are an explicit force that push for political change • Exclusion is high (only a few can afford to participate to cosmopolitics), but this is a additional reason to generate institutions

  22. Global democracy is not possibleno. 3 Kymlicka: “democratic politics is politics in the Vernacular” Democratic politics is politics in Esperanto Democracy is about understanding the reasons of others and about acceptance of diversity

  23. Indian Parliament, Four Official Languages

  24. European Parliament25 European Languages

  25. Global democracy is not desirableno. 1 Fear of domination in internal affairs: but are political communities independent? Fear of concentration of force (Zolo, Chandler): isn’t force already concentrated? To extend democratic institutions globally helps to counter-act hegemony

  26. Even the Security Council is an alternative to power politics

  27. Global democracy is not desirableno. 2 Fear of loosing control in the internal affairs by small democratic communities wish high degree of self-determination

  28. Global democracy is not desirableno. 3 But: if multiculturalism can be applied inside states, why should it not be applied globally? Are political communities independent?

  29. Global democracy is not needed • Internal democratisation would solve international problems ---- The democratic peace hypotheses (Russett) --- “Universal democracy (Diamond) ---- The Law of Peoples (Rawls) But: • do democratic states behave democratically in international affairs? • There is something more than war in world politics

  30. What is the yardstick to assess the foreign policy of a democratic state? • Compare it with autocratic states • Compare it with the rules applied internally

  31. What is cosmopolitan democracy? • Multi-layer governance • Applied differently at different scale-levels • Nurtured by deliberative democracy (stake-holders) and new forms of organised interests • Replaces sovereignty with constitutionalism

  32. Substantive goals of cosmopolitan democracy Limited objectives • Interstate peace • Protection of human rights • Real humanitarian intervention • Partial re-distribution of income and resources • In general, concerns survival

  33. The structure of cosmopolitan democracy

  34. What does it mean the concept of democracy beyond the State? Nonviolence • from international peace to internal democracy • minimisation of organised violence • development and respect of the rule of law Political control • transparency: Bentham, Madison, Kant • accountability to all stakeholders Political equality • participation of stakeholders • govern in the interest of all and not of the majority (or the group appointing the government)

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