The New South Chapter 15
New SouthVocabulary White supremacy Diversify Populists Disfranchisement Primary election General election White primary Grandfather clause Segregation Jim Crow Laws Plessy v. Ferguson Prohibition Suffrage
New South Political Change in the South Redeemers- Democrats that took control of GA after Reconstruction. Worked to undo many changes imposed during Reconstruction. Supported White Supremacy. They wanted things to go back to the way it was before the war, including cotton production. Bourbon Redeemers- Just like the Redeemers, except they wanted to industrialize, not go back to cotton. Bourbon Triumvirate- Three (Tri) leaders of the Bourbons. Ex-Confederate generals John B. Gordon, Alfred E. Colquitt, and Joseph E. Brown. Henry Grady- Supported the Bourbons through his writings in the Atlanta Constitution. Wanted to diversify Georgia’s economy.
New South Farmers and Politics- Bourbons wanted industrialization Farmers felt the state was spending more time recruiting businesses to the South than helping them. Farmers, led by Dr. William Felton and his wife Rebecca Latimer Felton, created an Independent Democrat party that would help farmers. Movement would eventually die out, but would lead to the Farmers’ Alliance.
Farmers’ Alliance and Tom Watson Led by Tom Watson, fought for farmers rights, elected to congress with support of farmers. He felt bankers, merchants and lawyers were taking control of the state. Watson helped create the RFD- Rural Free Delivery- which meant farmers no longer had to travel all the way to town to get mail.
New South Populists- Georgia political group that called for ALL farmers, both black and white, to unite against the Bourbons and industrialization. Tom Watson would join the group but would be defeated in his bid for congress as a Populist in 1892. Election was filled with fraud, more votes were cast than there were registered voters.
New South • Progressive Movement- • Democrats, believed in white supremacy, opposed social equality, led by Hoke Smith. • Wanted to legislate “moral behavior” (no drinking!). • Did want to improve education and wanted to help those in need (as long as they were white). • Believed in disfranchisement of blacks and poor whites. • Made paying poll taxes and property taxes mandatory to vote, as well as literacy tests. • Whites could be exempted for poll tax and literacy tests if they were “of good character”, owned 40+ acres of land, or served in the Confederate Army or was a descendant of someone that served (“Grandfather Clause”). • Created “White Primaries” where only white democrats could vote in the primaries.
New South II. Social Issues and Reform Segregation- the separation of the races Jim Crow laws- series of laws and unwritten customs that kept the two races apart. Examples- Separate rail cars, public facilities
New South Plessy v. Ferguson- Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a black man for riding in the white rail car. Made segregation legal based on the “Separate but Equal” doctrine
New South Child Labor Children younger than 10 forced to work in the growing industrial factories, 4 cents per hour. Deprived children of education and it was dangerous Laws were passed to protect children under 12 years old (12 year olds could work if they were orphans) 14 yr olds could work if they had attended school for 12 weeks prior and could write their name. Laws were hard to enforce. GA would lead the nation in child labor by 1920.
New South Prison Reform After reconstruction the state had very little money for prisons. Started using the Convict Lease System- prisoners could be leased or rented out to businesses for labor Shifted the cost of keeping prisoners onto the business. Became very profitable for state and businesses alike. Women, children and elderly were forced to work as well. Prisoners chained together during work, and slept chained together (chain gangs). Top leaders were involved as well Eventually the system was abolished due to abuse of prisoners.
New South Prohibition- Progressive idea to get rid of alcohol. Backed by Methodist and Baptist organizations (Women’s Christian Temperance Movement, Anti-Salon League). General Assemble allowed each county to vote on whether or not they would have alcohol. This type of vote is called a Local Option. By 1906 over 100 GA counties had outlawed liquor sales. 1906- huge race riot in Atlanta, blamed on people being drunk. Caused lawmakers to make it illegal to manufacture or sell liquor in GA. In 1916 liquor was made illegal to even possess. In 1919 the entire nation went “dry” with the 18th amendment.
New South Voting Rights for Women Push for women’s “suffrage” led by Rebecca Latimer Felton She and the other “suffragettes” were never able to get the state to allow women to vote, but in 1920 the 19th Amendment was added to the US Constitution granting women the right to vote in the US.
Chapter 16 Changing Georgia Society
New South Increasing Industrialization -Henry Grady- Toured the north trying to draw northern investors. Wrote about the “New South in the Atlanta Constitution -Textile manufacturing becomes largest industry 1900.
New South • Cotton Expositions: • Three expositions held in Atlanta between 1881 and 1895. • Idea was to draw people and investors to GA by showing the potential for manufacturing in the state. • Cotton States and International Exposition- Largest of the three expositions, held in 1895.
New South • Industry and investors drawn to GA for several reasons: • Cheap labor force • Low Taxes • Warm climate • Mills could be built closer to the cotton fields, lowering transportation costs.
New South Agriculture was still the main industry, cotton was still King. Sharecropping and tenant farming still widespread. Black Belt- Named because of it’s high percentage of black residents. Most cotton production was located in this region.
New South • Growth of Towns and Cities • Towns grew in rural areas so farmers had a place to buy supplies and trade their cotton. • Towns and cities also grew up around factories in order to support the workers. Atlanta- Gate City of the South- Grew from 37,000 people in 1880, to 155,000 in 1910. • Growth largely due to the railroad, 15 different rail lines fed Atlanta making it the transportation hub of the south.
New South Black Georgians flooded to Atlanta for new opportunities. Alonzo Herndon- Former slave, started the Atlanta Life Insurance Company. Became very wealthy, and donated a lot of money to black institutions.
New South Coca Cola- Developed in 1886 as a headache remedy by John Pemberton. Asa G. Candler eventually bought total ownership for $2,300. Candler emphasized the refreshing qualities of Coke rather than medicinal values. Sold Coke in 1919 for $25,000,000 Currently worth @$190 billion (with a B) 1.8 billion cokes sold per day Over 10,000 Coke products consumed every second.
Black Leaders of the Period W. E. B. DuBois Booker T. Washington Dr. John Hope
NAACP & Niagara • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Niagara Movement- • Both formed to fight Jim Crow laws and help black people advance in society.
Continued Violence 1906 Atlanta Race Riot- 25 blacks and 1 white killed when racial tensions turned violent. Riot was an example of a much larger problem, violence against black people (lynching) all over the south. Leo Frank- A Jew accused of murdering a 14 year old girl. Found guilty, sentenced to life in prison. Frank was take from the prison, after being incited by anti-Jewish editorials by Tom Watson, by an angry mob and hanged. Generally seen as the rebirth of the KKK in GA.
Black Reaction to Violence • The Great Migration- Black people left by the thousands between 1914 and 1917. • 50,000 left GA in 1916 & 1917 • By 1917 white business owners were worried about a labor shortage • Caused white business owners to speak out against violence towards blacks.
WWI • Causes- • Nationalism- Loyalty and devotion to a country or nation • European alliances - • Germany and Austria-Hungary became allied • Britain, France, Russia allied against Germany and Austria-Hungary • Archduke Ferdinand assassinated by a Bosnian nationalist ignites the war in Europe in 1914
WWI • US involvement- • Initially President Wilson keeps US neutral. -US enters the war in 1917 after Germany sinks American ships, including the Lusitania. - Zimmerman Telegram- Telegram from Germany to Mexico intercepted by Britain. Telegram urged Mexico to join the war and attack the US to recover land lost over the years. Telegram enraged US citizens.
WWI • Effects of the war on GA and GA contributions • Boom for farmers and cotton growers- Cotton needed for uniforms. More food needed to support war effort, helped cotton growers and farmers. • Over 100,000 Georgians served, exposing rural farm boys to the world. Women enter the workforce. • Many military bases opened in GA: Benning, Gordon, McPherson, among others. GA bases become largest infantry training sites.
Roaring 20’s After war, US emerges as a world power. Economic boom for Atlanta and most of US. Stock market soars BUT- GA farmers suffer- cotton prices fall after war due to decreased demand. Boll Weevil- pesky little critter that destroyed the cotton crop Across the US, farmers suffered while cities prospered