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Lesson 13 Announcements. Mid Term - in class – Open Book (CHPT 1,2,3,4 6pp129-134)– NEXT Wed Final exam is November 18. Administration will be posting the date, time and room numbers.

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Lesson 13 Announcements

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lesson 13 announcements
Lesson 13 Announcements
  • Mid Term - in class – Open Book (CHPT 1,2,3,4 6pp129-134)– NEXT Wed
  • Final exam is November 18. Administration will be posting the date, time and room numbers.
  • FIN 401 ends November 11. That is the same day that the second Financial plan is due. Reminder. Plan one is to be completed by half of the group and Plan two by the other half of the group.
  • Group 9 Article. Who wrote it: Reminder to all. These are two author submissions.
  • 090125 Xing and 090447 Zhang: Your article summary was already graded and a second one was submitted with your student number. Please check with your group to be sure that they get their articles handed in.
  • Reminder. Article summaries are worth up to 7.5% of the grade. Check your marks to ensure that yours has been graded and reported.
students to stay for 1 minute after class
Students to stay for 1 minute after class
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Unlike corporations, people have limited lives.

Financial patterns of people and corporations are different.

People tend to have predictable patterns. People can hold ownership in corporations and pass that ownership to the next generation, which changes the pattern and cycle.

People usually:

  • Develop earning power early in life
  • Borrow money and save very little
  • Later in life, after making the major purchases (eg. home) we begin to save for our retirement.
  • Income peaks at middle age.
  • Upon retirement, the savings are used to pay for living expenses.

Not everybody gets rich. Those who do get rich, usually know a lot about money management. Those who do get rich and don’t know a lot about money management, usually lose their wealth and wonder why!

historical banking trends
Historical Banking Trends

The Four Pillars

  • Banks
  • Trust Companies
  • Life Insurance Companies
  • Investment Dealers

Separate Laws govern each area, because each area requires a Specialization of Knowledge.

The laws ensure that employers will face penalties for negligent and incompetent service.

This encourages and motivates corporations (which are owned by shareholders) to set high standards for their employees of face legal and financial penalties. Stock holders do not like their investments to be fined.

The reason for Specialization is that the risk to the individual citizen’s financial security, and the security of the whole community is reduced if a high standard of professionalism is required.

During the 1970s and 1980s these large institutions bought their competitors from within the same industry.

The trend to purchase was especially strong among trust companies and investment dealers who were to small to achieve economies of scale.

Definition: Economies of Scale

The reduction in long-run average and marginal costs arising from an increase in size of an operating unit (a factory or business office). Economies of scale can be internal to an organization (cost reduction due to technological and management factors) or external (cost reduction due to the effect of technology in an industry).

Question: How can a business that produces a service, such as an investment dealer (stock brokerage) improve its economies of scale?

Cross Ownership In the 1990s Laws were changed to allow Banks to purchase other types of financial institutions.

The Trend continued: To provide a wider range of services than in the past.

What happened: Banks have been permitted to compete with insurance companies, stock and bond brokers and personal financial planners.

In many cases, the banks bought more than one and merged Trust Companies and Investment Dealers.


In some cases, Banks started their own:

  • Trust Companies
  • Investment Dealers
  • Mutual Funds
  • Life Insurance Programs

The 6 largest Canadian Banks dominate financial services in Canada.

Only the Life Insurance Companies are large enough to pose strong competition.


The banks have economies of scale that give them these advantages:

Size (people, specialization, training, professional development)

Geographical coverage (located in established communities and up and coming communities, near old wealth and new immigrants)

Variety of products and services (one stop shopping – like Walmart- it is very convenient)

Can this ever happen in China?

Is it good or bad?

Can it be of some benefit to you?

chartered banks
Chartered Banks

Two classes of Banks: ScheduleA and B

  • Offer a wide range of services and products in a retail environment
  • Cross country network of branch stores
  • Transaction services (in house/on-line: screen capture – next slide)
  • Investment Services (eg. Scotia McLeod)
  • Trust Management (eg. disability, estate)
  • Consumer and Residential Mortgages (biz and personal)
  • Insurance (eg. TD 1-800 skype)

Payment Clearing System (transfers cheques, deposits, other transactions among banks and other financial institutions)

THE BANK OF CANADA is controlled by the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. The BANK OF CANADA regulates the money supply and provides temporary liquidity support to the chartered banks.

Schedule A and Chartered Banks are Regulated Federally under the Bank Act and must be awarded a Charter (license) to operate by PARLIAMENT.

Schedule B Banks are much smaller in size , most do not have retail stores / branches and serve mostly the business sector and sometimes ethnic populations.



  • Select account
  • Pay Bill
  • Transfer Money to other accounts
  • Investments
  • Other Account Services
  • Transaction Details with date range function to search
  • E.g. email money order transfer to another person and service charge
  • transfer from savings to chequing to cover bill payments
  • Life Insurance
  • Mortgage payment (weekly)

Example of a child’s spending habits.

  • New York Fries
  • HMV music store
  • Variety Store (candy)
  • ABM withdrawal for cash.

Cheque number: usually starts at 001

Transit / Branch: Local Identification

Institution (Bank or Trust Company): eg. Credit Union

Account: My account number for this account

Account Type: eg. chequing, savings, business, personal, child’s account

trust companies
Trust Companies

Originally established to:

  • Manage Estates
  • Special Trust Funds
  • Executors

Later, Trust Companies began offering additional services similar to Schedule A Banks.

caisses populaires and credit unions
CaissesPopulaires and Credit Unions

Mutually owned by the customers.

See share price (screen capture) which is evidence of share capital in the credit union.

Common factor of membership is usually

  • Community (region or city)
  • Employer
  • Ethnic or Religious Group (strength in numbers – avoid being taken advantage of). Examples include:
start here on friday
Start Here on Friday

Test Prep Class in this room on Monday at 6PM

These students are encouraged to attend.

Anybody else that wants to attend is welcome.










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  • 90335
  • 80725
  • 90401
friday credit union and corporate social responsibility
FRIDAY: Credit Union and Corporate Social Responsibility

The need for Credit Unions was called for by people left out of the mainstream of financial power.

They demanded:

  • Services that met their needs

(financially poor, working class, undereducated)

  • Early on, Credit Unions offered limited services but today, they offer
    • Transaction servieds,
    • Term deposits
    • Credit cards
    • RRSP
    • Consumer Loans
    • Mortgage Loans
  • Regulate Provincially, not Federally like the Banks
trust company example
Trust Company Example

Member Shares = Ownership and Voting Privilege

This is different from Service Fees

cheque clearing houses data centre
Cheque Clearing Houses – Data Centre
  • Credit card = loan
  • Debit card = directly from acct
  • Direct deposit = salary or refund or other transfer
  • Direct debit = mortgage, insurance.
  • Cheque Conversion – takes several days.
  • Reconciliation of your account is mandatory to ensure that all transactions have been accurately recorded.

Automated Clearing House (ACH) is an electronic network for financial transactions. ACH processes large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches. ACH credit transfers include direct deposit payroll and vendor payments. ACH direct debit transfers include consumer payments on insurance premiums, mortgage loans, and other kinds of bills. Debit transfers also include new applications such as the point-of-purchase (POP).

mortgage and loan companies
Mortgage and Loan Companies

Unlike Banks and Credit Unions, deposits held by Mortgage and Loan Companies are not insured by the government or private insurers.

They receive their money from private depositors.

This increases the risk of dealing with them.

As their name implies, they provide:

  • Consumer Loans
  • Residential Mortgages

People who borrow from Mortgage and Loan Companies usually cannot get a loan from a Bank or Credit Union.

Borrowing rates are higher for people with poor credit.

investment dealers
Investment Dealers

Provide Investment Services by acting as agents to:

  • Buy and sell securities (stocks, shares, bonds and other securities)
  • Self Managed RRSPs (registered retirement savings plans)
  • Manage your money and invest your money using their judgment based on pre-agreed terms of your risk tolerance
  • Margin Loans = a short term loan amounting to a percentage of the purchase you want to make. You need to have an account that they hold in trust as collateral. This allows you to buy and sell. They charge a legal interest rate.

A more popular option than in the past:

  • Provide no advise
  • Execute the transaction
  • Charge lower fees than full service dealers
  • Internet Trading – E*Trade is an example. TD Waterhouse is the largest Canadian discount broker

Discount Brokers

life insurance companies
Life Insurance Companies

Sell the following:

- Life - Health - Disability

  • Premiums are paid in advance and claims paid later (home insurance – fire).
  • Insurance companies have huge investments from which to earn profits to pay dividends to their share holders and pay out legitimate claims.
general insurance companies
General Insurance Companies

Property – Home, Business, Farm, etc.

Casualty – Accident

Liability – At fault. It was my fault and I have to pay.

More in Chapter 11

mutual fund companies
Mutual Fund Companies

This is the name of the company and the product.

Mutual funds are a pool (grouping) of securities held by a company.

Private citizens or groups of people purchase units (percentages) of the fund. Owners realize proportionate increases or decreases in the value and can sell to take their profit or loss.

Track records demonstrating the percentage of profit are available to assist you to determine whether or not you want to invest with them.

in class exercise
In Class Exercise

In a group of 3, answer this question and hand it in to be graded.

Put your name and student number on the paper and hand it in before leaving class today.

If you are an employee and not a business owner, why is it still so very important to be skilled at personal financial management?