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The Endocrine System

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  1. The Endocrine System Chapter 13

  2. Overview of Structures, Combining Forms,and Functions of the Endocrine System

  3. Structures of the Endocrine System

  4. Endocrine System Click Here to play Endocrine System animation

  5. Adrenal Glands • Primary Function • Regulate electrolyte levels • Influence metabolism • Respond to stress • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • adren/o (continues)

  6. Adrenal Glands

  7. Gonads* • Primary Function • regulate development and maintenance ofsecondary sex characteristics • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • gonad/o *Males: testicles (2) *Females: ovaries (2)

  8. Secondary Sex Characteristics Click Here to play Secondary Sex Characteristics animation

  9. Male Testicles (Testes) • Primary Function • Sperm-producing gland • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • testic/o

  10. Female Ovaries • Primary Function • Ova (egg) producing gland • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • ovari/o

  11. Pancreatic Islets • Primary Function • Control blood sugar levels and glucose metabolism • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • pancreat/o

  12. The Pancreas Click Here to play Pancreas animation

  13. Parathyroid Glands • Primary Function • Regulate calcium levels throughout the body • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • parathyroid/o

  14. Parathyroid Glands

  15. Pineal Gland • Primary Function • Influences the sleep-wakefulness cycle • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • pineal/o

  16. Pineal Gland

  17. Pituitary Gland • Primary Function • Secretes hormones that control the activity of theother endocrine glands • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • pituit/o, pituitar/o (continues)

  18. Pituitary Gland

  19. Thymus • Primary Function • Plays a major role in the immune reaction • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • thym/o

  20. Thyroid Gland • Primary Function • Stimulates metabolism, growth, and the activityof the nervous system • Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) • thyr/o, thyroid/o

  21. Diabetic Retinopathy Click Here to play Diabetic Retinopathy animation

  22. Key Word Parts and Definitions • acr/o • extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point • adren/o • adrenal glands • crin/o • secrete • -dipsia • thirst (continues)

  23. Key Word Parts and Definitions • glyc/o • glucose, sugar • gonad/o • gonad, sex glands • -ism • condition, state of • pancreat/o • pancreas (continues)

  24. Key Word Parts and Definitions • parathyroid/o • parathyroid glands • pineal/o • pineal gland • pituitar/o • pituitary gland • poly- • many (continues)

  25. Key Word Parts and Definitions • somat/o • body • thym/o • thymus gland • thyr/o, thyroid/o • thyroid gland

  26. Questions

  27. Question In which organ is insulin produced? • the pancreas • the kidney • the liver

  28. Answer a. the pancreas

  29. Question The thyroid cartilage when enlarged is commonlyknown as an “Adam’s Apple.” True or False?

  30. Answer True. The thyroid gland is located just below thethyroid cartilage.

  31. Question Hyperglycemia is an abnormally lowconcentration of glucose in the blood. True or False?

  32. Answer False.Hypoglycemia is an abnormally lowconcentration of glucose in the blood.

  33. Question Which of these is the form in which the liverstores excess blood sugar? • glucose • glycogen • glucagon

  34. Answer b. glycogen

  35. Answers to Learning Exercises

  36. Chapter 13 Answers Matching Word Parts 1 13.1. adren/o 13.2. acr/o 13.3. gonad/o 13.4. -dipsia 13.5. crin/o Matching Word Parts 2 13.6. -ism 13.7. pancreat/o 13.8. parathyroid/o 13.9. pineal/o 13.10. pituitar/o

  37. Chapter 13 Answers Matching Word Parts 3 13.11. somat/o 13.12. poly- 13.13. glyc/o 13.14. thyroid/o 13.15. thym/o Definitions 13.16. luteinizing 13.17. pituitary 13.18. adrenocorticotropic 13.19. thymus 13.20. calcitonin 13.21. adrenal cortex 13.22. glucagon 13.23. adrenal medulla 13.24. oxytocin 13.25. testosterone

  38. Chapter 13 Answers Matching Structures 13.26. pancreatic islets 13.27. pituitary gland 13.28. pineal gland 13.29. adrenal glands 13.30. thyroid gland Which Word? 13.31. acromegaly 13.32. anterior 13.33. insulin resistance 13.34. diabetes insipidus 13.35. Cushing’s syndrome

  39. Chapter 13 Answers Spelling Counts 13.36. luteinizing 13.37. mellitus 13.38. myxedema 13.39. progesterone 13.40. thymosin Abbreviation Identification 13.41. adrenocorticotropic hormone 13.42. antidiuretic hormone 13.43. diabetes mellitus 13.44. fasting blood sugar 13.45. follicle-stimulating hormone

  40. Chapter 13 Answers Term Selection 13.46. thyroid storm 13.47. hypercalcemia 13.48. parathyroid 13.49. prolactinoma 13.50. fructosamine Sentence Completion 13.51. electrolytes 13.52. thyroxine 13.53. retinopathy 13.54. polyphagia 13.55. exophthalmos

  41. Chapter 13 Answers Word Surgery 13.56. hyper-, pituitar, -ism 13.57. hypo-, glyc, -emia 13.58. hyper-, insulin, -ism 13.59. gynec/o, mast, -ia 13.60. hypo-, calc, -emia True/False 13.61. False 13.62. True 13.63. False 13.64. False 13.65. True

  42. Chapter 13 Answers Clinical Conditions 13.66. antidiuretic 13.67. polydipsia 13.68. Addison’s disease 13.69. insulinoma 13.70. Hashimoto’s disease 13.71. anabolic 13.72. leptin 13.73. cretinism 13.74. gigantism 13.75. pancreatectomy Which Is the Correct Medical Term? 13.76. neurohormones 13.77. pituitary adenoma 13.78. Graves’ 13.79. diabetic coma 13.80. melatonin

  43. Chapter 13 Answers Challenge Word Building 13.81. adrenopathy 13.82. endocrinology 13.83. adrenomegaly 13.84. thymopathy 13.85. thyroiditis 13.86. pancreatotomy 13.87. thyroidotomy 13.88. pinealopathy 13.89. insulinemia 13.90. adrenitis Labeling Exercises 13.91. pineal 13.92. parathyroid 13.93. thymus 13.94. ovaries 13.95. hypothalamus 13.96. pituitary 13.97. thyroid 13.98. adrenal 13.99. pancreatic 13.100. testicles