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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Decision Support Systems. Tuesday April 18, 2006. Reminders. Reading For today Fundamentals text, Chapter Six, Information and Decision Support Systems Homework Homework Five Decision Support Systems Due Friday, April 21 st by 5pm Exam 2

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reminders
Reminders
  • Reading
    • For today
      • Fundamentals text, Chapter Six, Information and Decision Support Systems
  • Homework
    • Homework Five
      • Decision Support Systems
      • Due Friday, April 21st by 5pm
  • Exam 2
    • Tuesday, April 25th
    • 75 points
    • Similar types of questions as on Exam 1
    • Covers Telecom & Networks (Ch.4), Databases (Ch.3), MIS & Decision Support Systems (Ch.6)
  • Next week: Exam 2
decision making as a component of problem solving
Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving

How Decision Making Relates to Problem Solving

decision making as a component of problem solving1
Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving
  • Decision-making phase: first part of problem-solving process
    • Intelligence stage: potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined
    • Design stage: alternative solutions to the problem are developed
    • Choice stage: a course of action is selected
decision making as a component of problem solving2
Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving
  • Problem solving: a process that goes beyond decision making to include the implementation stage
  • Implementation stage: a solution is put into effect
  • Monitoring stage: decision makers evaluate the implementation
programmed versus nonprogrammed decisions
Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions
  • Programmed decisions
    • Decisions made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method
    • Easy to computerize using traditional information systems
    • Example?
  • Nonprogrammed decisions
    • Decision that deals with unusual or exceptional situations
    • Not easily quantifiable
    • Example?
optimization satisficing and heuristic approaches
Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic Approaches
  • Optimization model: a process that finds the best solution, usually the one that will best help the organization meet its goals
  • Satisficing model: a process that finds a good—but not necessarily the best—problem solution
  • Heuristics: commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution
an overview of decision support systems
An Overview of Decision Support Systems
  • A DSS is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making and problem solving
  • The focus of a DSS is on decision-making effectiveness when faced with unstructured or semistructured business problems
capabilities of a decision support system
Capabilities of a Decision Support System
  • Support all problem-solving phases
  • Support different decision frequencies
  • Support different problem structures
  • Support various decision-making levels
a comparison of dss and mis
A Comparison of DSS and MIS

Comparison of DSSs and MISs

a comparison of dss and mis continued
A Comparison of DSS and MIS (continued)

Comparison of DSSs and MISs

components of a decision support system1
Components of a Decision Support System
  • Database
  • External database access
  • Access to the Internet and corporate intranet, networks, and other computer systems
  • Model base: provides decision makers access to a variety of models and assists them in decision making
  • Dialogue manager: allows decision makers to easily access and manipulate the DSS and to use common business terms and phrases
intelligence phase support excel and access
Intelligence Phase Support: Excel and Access
  • Excel
    • List capabilities: Sorting, filtering
    • Pivot tables
    • Charting
  • Access
    • Queries
    • Reports
design phase support excel
Design Phase Support: Excel
  • Excel
    • What if analysis
      • Data tables
      • Scenario manager
stages of the decision making process choice
Stages of the Decision Making Process: Choice
  • Selecting a course of action
    • Excel
      • Solver
    • Expert systems
      • Intended to perform at the level of a human expert in a particular domain
    • Decision Tree Analysis
      • Add-in to Excel that facilitates construction of decision trees
common expert system architecture
User

Expert

Knowledge

Documented

Knowledge

User

Interface

Knowledge

Engineer

Inference

Engine

Blackboard

Knowledge

Base

User Environment

Development Environment

Common Expert System Architecture
group support systems
Group Support Systems
  • Group support system (GSS)
    • Consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making
    • Also called group decision support system or computerized collaborative work system
characteristics of a gss that enhance decision making
Characteristics of a GSS That Enhance Decision Making
  • Special design
  • Ease of use
  • Flexibility
  • Decision-making support
  • Anonymous input
  • Reduction of negative group behavior
  • Parallel communication
  • Automated record keeping
gss software
GSS Software
  • Often called groupware or workgroup software
  • Helps with joint workgroup scheduling, communication, and management
  • Examples: Lotus Notes, Microsoft’s NetMeeting, Microsoft Exchange, NetDocuments Enterprise, Collabra Share, OpenMind, TeamWare
gss alternatives
GSS Alternatives

GSS Alternatives

gss alternatives1
GSS Alternatives

The GSS Decision Room

group support system example
Group Support System Example
  • Meeting, Brainstorming, and Decision Making Tools for groups
executive support systems
Executive Support Systems
  • Executive support system (ESS): specialized DSS that includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization
executive support systems in perspective
Executive Support Systems in Perspective
  • Tailored to individual executives
  • Easy to use
  • Drill-down capable
  • Support the need for external data
  • Can help when uncertainty is high
  • Future-oriented
  • Linked to value-added processes
capabilities of executive support systems
Capabilities of Executive Support Systems
  • Support for defining an overall vision
  • Support for strategic planning
  • Support for strategic organizing and staffing
  • Support for strategic control
  • Support for crisis management
executive support systems1
Executive Support Systems
  • Xcelsius
  • Executive Dashboard
    • Identify, track, trend, and correct problems as managers evaluate the health of key areas of their organization
    • Identify operational efficiencies
    • Proactively identify and apply corrective measures
executive dashboard features
Executive Dashboard Features

Dashboard Screen: The dashboard page displays the overall health of key performance indicators. Each box represents a key performance indicator (KPI) and the health for corresponding periods. The default executive dashboard shown can be unique to the individual logged in, or shared by the entire organization.

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