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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware. Tuesday February 7, 2006. Reminders. Reading For next week Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Software section Homework Homework One due Friday, 2/10 by 5pm Submit to Mgt20600.01, .02, .03, or .04 dropbox

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Mgt 20600 it management applications hardware l.jpg

Mgt 20600: IT Management & ApplicationsHardware

Tuesday

February 7, 2006


Reminders l.jpg
Reminders

  • Reading

    • For next week

      • Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Software section

  • Homework

    • Homework One due Friday, 2/10 by 5pm

      • Submit to Mgt20600.01, .02, .03, or .04 dropbox

  • Next week’s class session: Software


Information systems the system of hardware components l.jpg
Information Systems:The System of Hardware Components

Input Devices

Memory

and

Processor

Storage

and

Output Devices


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Input Devices

  • A huge variety to choose from

  • Must match input device to task

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

      • Biometric mice

    • Microphones/voice recognition

    • Touch screens

    • Bar-code scanners

    • Point-of-sale devices

    • Radio frequency ID chips

  • Examples

    • Self check-out counter input devices?

    • Cell phone input devices?

    • PDA input devices?

    • PC input devices?


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Processing the Inputs

  • Processing device works hand in hand with

  • Memory (book uses primary storage as a synonym for this)

    • To process

      • Data transferred to the system by the input devices

      • Instructions from the operating system and software applications




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Processing the Inputs: The Processor

  • Processors can vary according to

    • Size – how much data they can process at a time

    • Speed – how fast they execute instructions

    • Coordinated or multi-processing – how many processors work together

    • The materials from which they are made

    • How fast they can communicate with memory and with each other

    • Of course this affects the cost!

  • Intel’s Multi-Core Processors

  • The future

    • Nanoswitches (2015)

    • Spin transistors

    • Crossbar latches

  • The trick is to buy the right processor for the task at hand!

  • Examples

    • WalMart’s transaction processing system

    • Individual executive’s spreadsheet analysis


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Processing the Inputs: Memory

  • Memory varies according to

    • Size – how much capacity it has

    • Volatility – whether you lose what’s in it when the electricity goes off

    • Function – ROM (read-only memory) holds permanent instructions whereas RAM (random access memory) holds temporary data and instructions

    • Speed - How fast it can communicate with the processor (bus speed)

    • How close it is located to the processor (cache memory)

  • Again, you must match your memory purchase to the tasks you intend to perform





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Storing the Output

  • Secondary or long-term storage is used to permanently store data or output

  • Greater capacity and greater economy than memory

  • Many different types of secondary storage devices that vary by

    • Capacity

    • Cost

    • Speed of data retrieval

    • Access method


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Storing the Output

  • Secondary storage devices

    • Hard disk (magnetic disk)

    • Floppy disk (magnetic disk)

    • Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)

    • CD-recordable (CD-R) discs

    • CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs

    • Digital versatile disc (DVD)

    • Memory cards

    • Expandable storage, i.e., zip drives

    • Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks (RAID)

    • Magnetic tapes

    • Storage Area Network (SAN)

  • The Future: Holographic Disks

    • Can attain far higher density of data storage than standard magnetic disk drives

    • Data stored as a holograph throughout the polymer material that makes up a disk

  • The Future: Blu-ray Disc or HD-DVD as replacements for DVD’s

  • Guess what! You have to match your storage device to the tasks you are undertaking!






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Displaying the Output

  • There are also countless ways to display the output of your information processing

  • Output device types

    • Computer screen

    • Printer

    • Mobile device

    • Telephone

    • Head phones

  • A look at the future: Electronic paper

  • Need I say it again! Match the output device to your needs and budget!


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Information Systems:The System of Hardware Components

Input Devices

Memory

and

Processor

Storage

and

Output Devices


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Computer System Types

  • Very often all the input, output, processing, memory, and storage devices will come bundled together in a computer system you buy as a whole

  • The major computer systems types are

    • Handheld computers

    • Portable computers

    • Thin client

    • Desktop computers

    • Workstations

    • Servers

    • Mainframe computers

    • Supercomputers

  • Each type has a very different role in life!

  • Your job, of course, is to choose which best fits your organization’s needs and budget


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Comparison of Major Computer System Types

MIPS: Millions of instructions per second

Teraflop: A trillion floating point operations per second


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Heterogeneous IT Environments

  • Corporate IT infrastructure usually includes many different types of computers running different types of software

  • Hannaford Brothers Co., $5 billion grocery retailer

    • 2 IBM mainframes

    • 200 Unix AIX servers

    • 250 Windows servers


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Mobile Devices on the Corporate Radar

  • Wireless laptop

  • Handheld computer

  • Wireless email device

  • Cell phone

  • Smart phone

  • Camera phones

  • Tablet PC’s

  • Handheld scanners

  • RFID devices

  • Hybrid Wi-Fi/cell phones



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Mobile Devices in the Corporate Environment

  • Concerns

    • Data carried from within the protected confines of the corporate computing infrastructure

    • Administrative costs of providing support for many different platforms

  • Good mobile device management strategy

    • Ascertain if there is a business need for the device

      • Benefit of using the tool versus the added overhead cost of accommodating the tool

    • Segment employees by job function

    • Decide on list of devices that IT will (and will not) support

      • Standardize on particular devices

    • Devise a training plan for users and help desk staffers

    • Develop enforcement mechanisms that will ensure device security

      • Ability to remotely perform a hard reset of a mobile device

      • Encrypt wireless transmissions

      • Power-on passwords

  • UPS example

    • If user’s primary need is access to email and the Web, she gets a smart phone

    • If user’s primary need is access to business applications to do her job, she gets a laptop


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Mobile Devices in the Corporation

  • Accepting payments on the go

    • Cell phone and card swipe attachment

    • Handheld with built-in swipe slot

    • Used by merchants who want to accept payment on the go like

      • Plumbers

      • Limousine drivers

      • Flea market proprietors

      • Restaurants

      • Car rental firms

      • Sonic drive-in restaurants


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Mobile Devices in the Corporation

  • GPS-enabled phones or handhelds

    • Used by SuperShuttle to equip its drivers to improve scheduling capabilities and customer service

      • Driver benefits

        • Dispatchers could guide them around traffic jams

        • Drivers could choose fares by finding the closest ones on a GPS map

        • Drivers had more control

    • Used by Del-Air, a Florida heating, ventilation, air conditioning contractor

      • Better way to track its technicians

      • Instituted bonus pay related to quick work – validated by GPS data


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Mobile Devices in the Corporation

  • Wireless in the warehouse

    • Laptops, handhelds, smart phones

      • Can be used to monitor almost everything that moves in a manufacturing environment

      • More efficient

        • Inventory management

        • Enterprise asset management and maintenance

        • Order fulfillment

        • Field-support operations


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Thin Clients

  • Computers connected to a server in a network and have no hard drives

  • Thin-client sales grew 46% from 2004 to 2005

  • Advantages

    • Support telecommuting

    • Better security

    • Easier administration

      • Faster and easier backups

      • Efficient disaster recovery

    • Less expensive

      • Can cut costs up to 70%

      • Thin client model has 35% to 40% lower TCO overall

    • Centralized data



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Thin Client Computing

What is the most compelling business value case for thin client computing?


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Personal Computers

  • Demise of the Desktop?

    • Laptop to Desktop ratio in corporations

      • 1 in 5 in 1999

      • 1 in 3 in 2005

      • 1 in 2 in next few years

  • Why?

    • Mobility!

      • Outside and inside of workplace

    • Changes in work habits

      • Used on the road, in the home, into meetings

      • Facilitate collaboration as well as email access

    • Wireless connectivity improvements

    • Battery life improvements

    • Price/Performance gap between laptops and desktops has narrowed considerably

    • Availability of workstation-class laptops for computing intensive tasks like software development and computer-aided design

    • Laptop reliability has improved

  • Laptop concerns

    • Security!


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PC Virtualization

  • PC hardware moved into data center as part of PC blades

    • Fit into a chassis that can be centrally managed

    • Several users can share a single blade

    • Simplifies PC management

  • Thin client on desktop that functions as an extended keyboard, monitor, and mouse


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Servers

  • Midrange computers in data center that provide applications, web services, and storage to client devices

  • Defining features

    • Use faster, multi-core processors than pc’s

      • 64 bit processors

    • Often run Unix or Linux as their operating systems

    • Often deployed in server farms or blades for easy management and flexibility

    • Less costly than mainframes

    • Ability to load balance


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Mainframes

  • Large, very fast computers that support the enterprise

    • Many legacy systems run on mainframes

    • Known for reliability and scalability

    • Can replace many midrange servers and can cut IT staff costs as a result



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Mainframe Example

  • AARP (American Association of Retired Persons)

    • Members

      • 35 million members

      • 76 million baby-boomers preparing for retirement

    • Central customer database

      • Can be accessed by

        • Members

        • Trading partners

          • Insurance providers

          • Retirement communities

    • Technology

      • Mainframe used for customer database

        • Centralized

          • Member information can be maintained and secured independently of the numerous IT applications that use it

        • Reliable

        • Scalable

          • Will support increasing numbers of transactions as membership grows

        • Continuously updated

          • Makes it easier to market products and services to its members

        • Application-independent

          • Common interface to the database for suppliers

          • Standard method for integrating applications with the database


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What a SuperComputer Looks Like

Terabyte: A thousand billion bytes or a thousand gigabytes

Gigaflop: One billion floating point operations per second


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Corporate Supercomputing

  • Ping Inc., golf club maker

    • Uses supercomputer to run simulations of golf club designs

    • Has drastically reduced development time

  • Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

    • Uses supercomputing for tire simulations

    • Reduces amount of money spent on building physical tire prototypes, from 40% to 15% of the research and development budget

  • Supercomputing also supports

    • Digital animation

    • Bioinformatics

    • RFID chips and the huge databases they create