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Warm Up—Writing Conventions(Copy AGENDA and LG!)Answer the Questions Below • While Sara visited with Sam: she finished her science project. • with Sam. She finished • with Sam; she finished • with Sam, she finished • Leave as is. When Tom arrived at school he was carrying all his books with him. arrived at school, he arrived, at school he arrived at school he, Leave as is.
Warm Up—Writing Conventions(Copy AGENDA and LG!)Answer the Questions Below • In the summertime Irving is covered in freckles. But in winter he doesn’t have a mark on him. • covered in freckles, but • covered in freckles; but • covered, in freckles but • Leave as is. The moment he puts seeds in the birdhouse birds, come to feed from miles around. in the birdhouse. Birds come in the birdhouse, birds come in the birdhouse, birds have come Leave as is.
Today’s Learning Goal I will be able to identify characteristics of the CAHSEE Writing Conventions strand, and I will be able apply correct uses of grammar and punctuation by completing the CAHSEE practice lessons in my work packet.
Notes: Writing Conventions to Know • Main/(Independent) and Subordinate/(dependent) Clauses • Gerund phrases • Infinitive phrases • Participial phrases • Parallel Structure • Modifier Placement • Verb Usage: Tense Consistency/Subject Agreement • Pronoun Usage • Comparative vs. Superlative Usage QUICK SELF-ASSESSMENT: Go through this list of English Conventions and see how many of them you can explain in your own words. ALL OF THESE RULES ARE TESTED ON THE CAHSEE!
Grading Your Packet • For each question in this packet, identify the ENGLISH CONVENTION that is being tested. • Example: While the clothes were _______ to get to the grocery store and back. • In the dryer: Federico had time • In the dryer; Federico had time • In the dryer, Federico had time • In the dryer. Federico had time Main/Subordinate Clause
Homework Look through the WRITING CONVENTIONS portion of your packet and define the rules for each CONVENTION listed in your notes on a separate sheet of paper. I will collect this paper in class: Main/(Independent) and Subordinate/(dependent) Clauses Gerund phrases Infinitive phrases Participial phrases Parallel Structure Modifier Placement Verb Usage: Tense Consistency/Subject Agreement Pronoun Usage Comparative vs. Superlative Usage
Main (Independent)and Subordinate (Dependent) Clause • A main clause—sometimes called an independent clause—must contain a subjectand a verb as well as express a complete thought. Look at the examples below: • Diane kicked the soda machine. • Diane = the subject; kicked = the verb. • A giant spider has made its home behind the stacks of newspaper on the shelf. • Spider = the subject; has made = the verb.
Exception to the Rule • When you place a subordinate conjunction or preposition in front of a subject and verb, you will no longer have a complete thought. The group of words becomes a subordinate clause, like these examples: • When Diane kicked the soda machine ... • Because a giant spider has made its home behind the shampoo bottle in Neil's bathroom ... • Even though Sima and Michele are skipping their chemistry class to sit by the lake and watch the sun sparkle on the water ...
A sentence may contain any number of GRAMMATICAL PARTS • While dissecting a cow heart in her anatomy and physiology class, Shenicka realized that a cheeseburger, her favorite lunch, was no longer appetizing. • While dissecting a cow heart = participle phrase. • In her anatomy and physiology class = prepositional phrase. • Shenicka realized = the essential main clause. • That a cheeseburger was no longer appetizing = subordinate clause. • Her favorite lunch = appositive.
Copy each sentence and identify the Main (Independent)and Subordinate (Dependent) Clause • While I was driving, I noticed the leaves had begun to turn autumn colors. • Even though the broccoli was covered in cheddar cheese, Emily refused to eat it. • Unless Christine finishes her calculus homework, she will have to suffer Mr. Nguyen's wrath in class tomorrow.
Gerund Phrases • A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund, an ing word, and will include other modifiers and/or objects. Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects or objects in the sentence. Read these examples: • Eating ice cream on a windy day can be a messy experience if you have long, untamed hair. • Eating ice cream on a windy day = subject of the verb “can be.” • A more disastrous activity for long-haired people is blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down. • Blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down = subject of the verb “is.”
GERUND WARNING! Don't mistake a gerund phrase for a present participle phrase. • Gerund and present participle phrases are easy to confuse because they both begin with an ing word. The difference is that a gerund phrase will always function as a noun while a present participle phrase describes another word in the sentence. Check out these examples: • My dog's most annoying habit is hogging the middle of the bed. • Hogging the middle of the bed = gerund phrase, the subject complement of the linking verb is. • Last night I had to sleep on the couch because I found my dog Floyd hogging the middle of the bed. • Hogging the middle of the bed = present participle phrase describing Floyd.
Participial Phrases • A participle phrase will begin with a present or past participle. If the participle is present, it will dependably end in ing. Likewise, a regular past participle will end in a consistent ed. Irregular past participles, unfortunately, conclude in all kinds of ways (eatate). See the examples below: • Crunching caramel corn for the entire movie • Washed with soap and water
Copy each sentence and underline the Gerund Phrases and Participial Phrases • The children, crying and exhausted, were guided out of the collapsed mine. • Crying will not get you anywhere. • The children's singing and laughing woke me up. • There are many ways of breaking a heart. • I believe that laughing is the best calorie burner
Infinitive Phrases • An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive[to + simple form of the verb]. It will include objects and/or modifiers. Here are some examples: • To smash a spider • To kick the ball past the dazed goalie • To lick the grease from his shiny fingers despite the disapproving glances of his girlfriend Gloria
Copy each sentence and underline the Infinitive Phrases • I don't like to speak in public unless I'm getting paid for it. • Jill loves to dance, she is a very talented ballet dancer. • The officer returned to help the inspectors. • Help me to build the project model after school.
Parallel Structure • When two or more actions are being described in the same sentence, all verbs or verb phrases must be in the same form. • Example: • Incorrect: My dog Oreo loves runningand to chew stuffed animals. • Correct: My dog Oreo loves running and chewing stuffed animals. OR My dog Oreo loves to run and to chew stuffed animals.
Parallel Structure • When two or more descriptions are listed in a single sentence, all parts of speech must match (adjectives, nouns, or verbs). • Example: • Incorrect:Most people don’t like public speaking, high heights, and to take long tests. • Correct:Most people don’t like public speaking, high heights, and long tests.
Copy each sentence and Correct the Errors in Parallel Structure • Two things that were hard to learn as a freshman were studying for tests and to make new friends. • My parents like to read, to paint, and watching old movies on the weekends. • My friends were always jogging in the park or to play a game of tennis.
ModifierPlacement • Modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that provide description in sentences. • Typically, you will find a modifier snuggled right next to—either in front of or behind—the word it logically describes. Take the simple, one-word adjective “blue.” If we add it to the sentence that follows, where should it go? • At a downtown dealership, Kara bought a truck from a salesman with a comb over. • Should we locate blue next to dealership? A blue downtown dealership? A blue Kara? A blue salesman? Of course not! Logic dictates that blue can describe only one word, “truck,” so we must place the modifier next to that word: • At a downtown dealership, Kara bought a blue truck from a salesman with a comb over. • Multi-word phrases and clauses work just as one-word adjectives, they often go right next to the word they describe. Here are some examples: • Gazing out the window, Paul missed the homework assignment that Prof. Zuromski wrote on the board. • Gazing out the window is a participle phrase describing Paul, the noun that follows. • As the hurricane approached, we watched the tree branches waving in the strong breeze. • Waving in the strong breeze is a participle phrase describing branches, the noun in front.
Misplaced Modifiers • Sometimes a writer places the modifier too far away from the word it should describe. A misplaced modifier causes confusion and is a grammatical error. • Example: • As the hurricane approached, waving in the strong breeze we watched the tree branches. • [Waving in the strong breeze is a participle phrase. In the current sentence, it is describing the pronounwe. How illogical! We weren’t the ones waving in the strong breeze!]
Copy each Sentence and Correct the ModifierPlacement. • Swinging wildly through the trees, the children were delighted by the monkeys. • I like to listen to rock music doing my homework. • The jacket just wasn’t the right color in the store.
Verb Tense Consistency • When two or more actions are being described in a sentence, all VERBS or VERB PHRASES describing the same time period must be written in the same tense… • Incorrect: While I waited for the movie to begin, I was realizing that I’d forgotten all about my sister’s ballet recital. • Correct: While I waited for the movie to begin I realized that I’d forgotten all about my sister’s ballet recital.
Copy each sentence and correct the errors in Verb Tense • Correct the underlined portions of each sentence below by (1) identifying the correct tense using context clues (2) changing needed verbs: • When I was eight, I joined a baseball team and was playing first base. • I predict that Joe met the girl of his dreams. • Jane is expecting a friend over last night. • When she opens your gift, she has loved it. • I was eating five apples today and everyday.
Subject Verb Agreement Subject = 1 elephant Subject = more than 1 elephant • Grammatical rule stating that the VERB must agree in number with its SUBJECT. • Singular vs. Plural Subject • Example: • The elephanttrumpets for peanuts.(singular subject) • The elephants trumpet for peanuts.(plural subject)
Singular vs. Plural Verbs • In the present tense, singular verbs end with an “s”, plural verbs do not. (need/needs, like/likes) • “is” = singular “are” = plural • “has” = singular “have” = plural • “was” = singular “were” = plural
Remember to Count your Subjects Carefully in each sentence: • Single Subject: The elephantis entertaining the crowd. • Plural Subject: The elephant and the monkey are entertaining the crowd.
Pay attention to CONJUNCTIONS when counting subjects: • Two or more subjects joined by “or”= singular/plural depends on which subject is AFTER “or” and CLOSEST TO THE VERB: • The elephant or the monkeyis…= Singular • The elephant or the monkeysare…= Plural • Two subjects joined by “and”= always plural • The elephant and the monkey = plural • The elephant and the monkeys = plural
Practice Subject Identification: • John or Jim… (singular/plural) • Neither Carol nor Ted… (singular/plural) • Neither the teacher nor the students... (singular/plural) • Either the apples or the orange… (singular/plural) • Whether Jane or her dogs… (singular/plural) • The teacher and the student (singular/plural)
Beware Prepositions: in, on, at, with, without, in front, behind, along, etc. • The book on the shelves (singular/plural) • The desks behind the building (singular/plural) • The window below the posters (singular/plural) • The students in the classroom (singular/plural)
Copy each sentence and choose the Correct Verb that matches each Subject • Neither the oranges nor the apples (was/were) expensive. • All of the dogs in the neighborhood (has/have) leashes and collars. • A high tax, not to mention unemployment, (influence/influences) political votes. • Not only the students, but also the teacher (is/are) unhappy. • Jeff and Janie (need/needs) help with their project.
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES We use the COMPARATIVE to compare TWO people, places or things. • Long adjective: MORE + long adjective exciting more exciting beautiful more beautiful • Irregular adjectives good better bad worse • Short adjective + ER old older young younger • Short Adjective + ER (the final consonant is doubled) big bigger hot hotter • Short adjective ended in “Y” -IER easy easier heavy heavier • We use the word “THAN”after the comparative form of the adjective. • John is taller than Mary. • A Ferrari is more expensive than a Fiat.
SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES We use the SUPERLATIVE to compare MORE THAN TWO people, places or things. • We use the word “THE” before the superlative form of the adjective. • John is the tallest. • A Ferrari is the most expensive car . • Short adjective + EST old the oldest young the youngest • Short adjective + EST (the final consonant is doubled) big the biggest hot the hottest • Short adjective ended in –Y -IEST easy the easiest heavy the heaviest • Long adjective: THE MOST + long adjective exciting the most exciting beautiful the most beautiful • Irregular adjectives good the best bad the worst
Change the Adjective into its Comparative or Superlative form to write each sentence • Monday's weather is supposed to be (more hot/hotter) than yesterday's. • Shelby is (more good/better) at crossword puzzles than I am. • Raj arrived at the movie theater (earlier, earliest) than Derek, so he bought the tickets. • Hannah's backyard is (larger, more large) than mine. • JoAnn swam the (fastest, most fast) in the race. • Tham is the (precisest, most precise) with his calculations. • The (best, more better) price offered in the catalog was $9.99. • This glass of iced tea is (sweeter, sweetest) than the other one.
Writing Strategies Strand Skills Tested: • Identifying Active/Passive Voice • Precise language—specific vocabulary • Identifying Main Idea—first and last ¶ • Choosing the best research sources
Passive Voice(PASSIVE: Accepting or allowing what happens without responsive action) Occurs when you make the object of an action into the subject of a sentence. Whoever or whatever is performing the action is not the grammatical subject of the sentence. Example: Why was the road crossed by the chicken?
Examples of Passive Voice • The table was set by the waiter. • The bone was chewed by the dog. • In order to be successful, changes had to be made by the manager.
Active Voice When a verb is in the active voice, the subject of the sentence is also the doer of the action. Example: Why did the chicken cross the road? In this example, the subject—the chicken—is also the doer or the thing performing the action. It is NOT the passive receiver of the action.
Examples of Active Voice • The waiter set the table. • The dog chewed the bone. • In order to be successful, the manager had to make changes.
Write each sentence using the ACTIVE VOICE.If the sentence is correct, copy it down and identify the action and the doer of the action. • Seven days a week, Paul ventures onto the subway with his clarinet. • Alexa completed her homework diligently while keeping her goals in mind. • The award for best picture was given to the film Avatar by the Academy leaders. • Seven days a week, Paul ventures onto the subway with his clarinet. • The meal was made by chef Mario and it was scrumptious.
Exit Reflection In brief paragraph written in your own words, explain the difference between a MAIN CLAUSE and SUBORDINATE CLAUSE.
Exit Reflection In brief paragraph written in your own words, explain parallel structure.