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Phobia. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Main symptoms: Marked and persistent fear Anxiety response Avoidance Interferes with everyday activities Duration 6 months or more Affects 6-11% of population (more F) Lifetime problem in 10% of cases. Explanations of Phobia. www.psychlotron.org.uk.

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phobia
Phobia

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Main symptoms:
    • Marked and persistent fear
    • Anxiety response
    • Avoidance
    • Interferes with everyday activities
    • Duration 6 months or more
  • Affects 6-11% of population (more F)
  • Lifetime problem in 10% of cases
explanations of phobia
Explanations of Phobia

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Biological
    • Genetics
    • Nervous system abnormalities
  • Psychological
    • Learning theory
genetic influences
Genetic Influences

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Compare concordances of MZ & DZ twins
  • Greater similarity of MZ twins is assumed to indicate a genetic influence
genetic data simple phobia
Genetic Data (Simple Phobia)

www.psychlotron.org.uk

genetic data simple phobia5
Genetic Data (Simple Phobia)

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • MZ concordance usually significantly higher than DZ
    • Suggests genetic influence
  • MZ concordance always significantly lower than 100
    • Indicates environmental influence is also in operation
twin studies
Twin Studies

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Commonly affected by several problems:
    • Small samples (NB: not always – check)
    • Unreliable zygosity tests (early studies only)
    • MZ twins tend to be treated more similarly than DZ, which may account for greater similarity
    • DZ twins can be M&F, which may be important with sex-differentiated disorders (like simple phobia)