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Outline of Scenario for CPM Evaluation, Q4/5 BPP09 D. Mott after discussion with Maj Ed Gentle, Jitu Patel v2
Objectives • evaluate CPM to assist: • multilevel collaborative planning and replanning • multinational operation (US/UK) • interoperability across 3 different systems (IBM, Honeywell, Boeing) • explore human aspects of shared understanding: • rationale • visualisation • controlled natural languages
Design principles • extend previous scenario and evaluation methodology • clearing routes in preparation for an attack, supported by field artillery • extend to both US and UK units • add logistics to support field artillery • simulate an ISTAR revision of information to trigger replanning • evaluation conducted in US and UK simultaneously
General Terminology • BDE – Brigade • BG – Battlegroup • BN - Battalion • CSS - Combat Service Support • ES – Equipment Support • FPOL – forward passage of line (ie allow passage through) • FOM – freedom of movement • IOT – in order to • ISTAR – intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, reconnaissance, eg UAV, EW • LOG – logistics
“Tactical Mission Tasks” (US Army FM 1-02) • A tactical mission task is the specific activity performed by a unit while executing a form of tactical operation or form of maneuver. It may be expressed in terms of either actions by a friendly force or effects on an enemy force. Tactical mission tasks describe the results or effects the commander wants to achieve, the what and why of a mission statement. • eg: BLOCK , CLEAR, DESTROY , SEIZE • How model? either of: • CLEAR is a subtype of objective, and any task that has a CLEAR objective is (implicitly) a “CLEAR task”; but there are no CLEAR task entities • CLEAR is a subtype of task, and this can only be if the associated objective is (implicitly) related to “CLEARing”. • FEINT is not a tactical mission task, but is defined in FM 1-02 • Other organisations (DoD, US Marines, etc) may have different definitions (but still defined in FM 1-02)
Specific Terms (for US Army) and graphics • BLOCK: A tactical mission task that denies the enemy access to an area or prevents his advance in a direction or along an avenue of approach. • CLEAR: A tactical mission task that requires the commander to remove all enemy forces and eliminate organized resistance in an assigned area. (FM 3-90) • DESTROY: A tactical mission task that physically renders an enemy force combat-ineffective until it is reconstituted. • FEINT: A form of attack used to deceive the enemy as to the location or time of the actual decisive operation. Forces conducting a feint seek direct fire contact with the enemy but avoid decisive engagement. (FM 3-0) • SEIZE: A tactical mission task that involves taking possession of a designated area using overwhelming force.
Key concept definition • A Mission is a Task with a Purpose (IOT effect E)
General Hierarchy BDE HQ LOG ES Medical BG/BN BG/BN ISTAR FieldArty Air Def Combat Service Support Units Combat Units Combat Support Units
General structure of an HQ G1 G2 PERS INT • G5 PLANS: Decide on and synchronise effects to achieve objectives, including issuing missions/tasks to all combat and combat support units • CSS: Develop the logistic plan, including LOG, ES and medical, to support the G5 plan • FIRES: Develop the fire plan (including divisional and air assets allocated) to support the G5 plan. G5 PLANS OPS FIRES INFLUENCE G4 G3 + Liason from peer units CSS
Situation Use Holistan scenario, using our std background? • Enemy: Red forces have invaded country X. They have now adopted a defensive posture to consolidate territorial gains • Friendly: Multinational force has been developed and authorised to use force to restore territorial integrity of country X. • Division (with 3 BDEs) • Intent: DEFEAT red forces in country X and then secure the borders of country X • Mission: defeat enemy in Area X in order to restore territorial integrity of country Not entirely clear which is the task and which is the objective
Organisation & Participants DIV XY • Dotted Units provide context only • Solid Units are participants BDE XY BDE LOG BDE FIRES Field Artillery placement and allocation Ammunition High level plan BG1 BG4 ISTAR BG2 BG3 BG2 LOG Ammunition Subplan 1 Subplan 2 Do we need to define the nationality of context units?
BDE Plan • MISSION. BLOCK. BDE is to: • CLEAR en W of river • DESTROY en in OA PEAR • SEIZE crossings on River • BLOCK en in OA APPLE IOT set conditions for a Divisional Strike I have constructed these using the format of the Dragon Sword example provided. I am still not entirely clear which level of detail goes where. For example I have not put the FEINT here, on the grounds that it is something that enables the mission and is not directly part of it. Is this correct? How to we get from the DIV mission/intent to the BDE Mission? It seems part of “Secure Borders of Country X”, but there is a big jump between this and the BLOCK Mission
DIV XY identifies problem for BDE DIV sets the problem, and has the objective BDE has the task (???) and owns the plan
BDE “accepts” the task and objective This is context. There is an open question as to how much of the context needs to be included Presumably in the military, BDE has no option but to accept. But if the problem were passed down to an NGO, acceptance might not always be given (depending on influence relations, politics etc)
BDE creates tasks Each Objective has one task, with that objective.
BDE Mission (input from DIV) BLOCK IOT set conditions for a Divisional Strike Is the II the correct symbol, given we are talking about Battlegroups?
BDE Plan (contd) Maj Ed said that this should not include ordering info (which is in the SoM) though the DS example does so. I have included minimal ordering info here. • EXECUTION • Concept of Ops • Intent. I intend to CLEAR the en W of the river whilst conducting a FEINT to the N, then DEFEAT the en at OA PEAR and BLOCK the en at OA APPLE. • Scheme of Manoeuvre. BG1 will move N to conduct a FEINT. Then BG2 will move to CLEAR RTE D to the N River Crossing and will SEIZE the N crossing.At the same time BG3 will move to CLEAR RTE E to the S River Crossing and will SEIZE the S crossing. BG4 will then conduct FPOL through BG2 to pass over the River to DESTROY the en at OA PEAR. BG2 and BG1 will then move to BLOCK the en at OA APPLE. • Main Effort. SEIZUREof xing sites at OA BANANA and PEACH lying with BG2 and BG3 • Endstate. A BLOCK established in OA APPLE Looks like BG2 and 3 are being told HOW to do it, rather than just WHAT to do? Compare Intent to Mission? Mainly the same but note that the FEINT is not in the Mission, but is in the SoM, and the SEIZE Crossings is in the Mission but not in the Intent, only the SoM. Is this just a minor inconsistency? Can we assume the mission = intent?
Intent Schematic BLOCK IOT facilitate FPOL of BDE XY (BG1&2) FEINT IOT deceive enemy (BG1) DESTROY IOT defeat enemy (BG4) OA PEAR OA MANGO CLEAR IOT allow FOM (BG2&3) SEIZE (BG2&3) OA APPLE RTE D OA BANANA RTE E OA PEACH Given we have limited participants, it will be necessary to ensure that the high level plan uses only the two BGs? Do we have to enforce some constraints on the BDE planner?
Suggested dependencies? • BLOCK requires en DESTROYed at OA PEAR • DESTROY requires FPOL of BG4 through BG2, and hence (both?) River crossing(s) SEIZEd and route(s) CLEARed • SEIZE river crossing requires route CLEARed • The CLEAR (and SEIZE and DESTROY?) requires an initial FEINT.
Sample BG3 Mission • MISSION. ADVANCE. BG3 is to: • CLEAR RTE E • Establish route across river in OA PEACH IOT facilitate FPOL of BG4 through BG3. Should we include the SEIZE here?
Sample BG4 Mission • MISSION. DESTROY. BG4 is to: • DESTROY en in OA PEAR IOT DEFEAT en. This includes many implied tasks, such as FPOL through BG2
SUGGESTED REPLAN • ISTAR detects new enemy in path of BG2 • Change missions so that BG2 DESTROYs en and BG3 takes over the SEIZE of both crossings DESTROY (BG2) SEIZE (BG3) RTE D OA BANANA CLEAR (BG3) RTE E OA PEACH
Logistics • Possible relevant resources: • Ammunition • Fuel • Spare parts, eg tank engines
Some general considerations • Type and quantity of ammunition depends on: • the nature of the enemy (at the target area and also when travelling to the target area) • nature of task: • DESTROY, will be quick, tank shells used • BLOCK, defensive, longer duration, infantry will use antitank rockets, bullets. • Quantity of fuel depends on: • distance travelled to get to the area • Will need to consider what is going to happen after the task has been completed
BDE level logistics • The total anticipated expenditure of resource across the entire BDE is calculated, broken down into a table of requirements per subunit (eg BGs) • The current resource availability status of each unit is determined • The actual requirements can be calculated from this information
BG level logistics • Run by Company Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS) • They use land rovers and fuel trucks for transport • CQMS works out the requirements for each CoY • Pick up stores at supply windows
Relation between BDE and BG logistics • BG will use own stores and BDE LOG will aim to supply BG LOG with resources to top up stores • BDE plans for distribution points, with “windows of supply” available to each BG at specific locations and with specific open and close times • Distribution points will always be in friendly controlled areas • Log pull • BG can request stocks from BDE on basis of actual need • Log push • BDE assigns stocks to BG on basis of estimated need • Mixture of both: • BDE assigns stocks to BG, and BG can then request more if not sufficient • This is the most likely case in this scenario
BDE LOG considerations in scenario • BG1 is used for two tasks in two distant locations, and will require resupply of fuel and ammunition between FEINT and BLOCK • BG3 will require resupply of fuel and ammunition between CLEAR and SEIZE • At start of operation, BDE might establish distribution point to left of map area • Then later when territory taken, establish distribution point nearer to BLOCK area. • NB in reality this might require an extra bridge across the river to avoid conflict between use of bridge by LOG and the BGs • Alternatively, the BDE logistic assets could be regrouped to lend the BDE fuel trucks to travel with the BGs. Is this right? and what about BG2 and 4?
Suggested Steps for Evaluation • BDE, BDE LOG and FIRES construct plan and orders for BG2 and BG3, taking account of requirement for Field Artillery (FIRES, using ArtyPro) and Ammunition (LOG, using new “AmmoPro”) • BG2 (with BG2 LOG) and BG3 receive orders and plan independently, taking account of requirement for Field Artillery (BG2 and BG3) and Ammunition (BG2 LOG). There may need to be some renegotiation for resources? • BG2 and BG3 return plan to BDE where it is merged. Other conflicts may be detected here? • ISTAR triggers a new sighting of enemy and BDE must replan the use of BG2 and BG3. Assume Ammo and FA fixed so no replanning of these?
ORBAT • BattleGroup here will be formed around an armoured regiment • do we need a specific battlegroup entity? • what is the orbat?