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MULTIPLEX. Ian McCrea, Tim Yeoman, Mike Kosch, Farideh Honary Mike Rietveld, Anita Aikio, Ove Havnes, Ingrid Sandahl. Polar Atmosphere Working Group: Membership. PPARC funded Dr. Ian McCrea (RAL, chair) Prof. Farideh Honary (Lancaster) Dr. Tim Yeoman (Leicester) NERC funded

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MULTIPLEX

Ian McCrea, Tim Yeoman, Mike Kosch, Farideh Honary

Mike Rietveld, Anita Aikio, Ove Havnes, Ingrid Sandahl


Polar atmosphere working group membership
Polar Atmosphere Working Group: Membership

  • PPARC funded

    • Dr. Ian McCrea (RAL, chair)

    • Prof. Farideh Honary (Lancaster)

    • Dr. Tim Yeoman (Leicester)

  • NERC funded

    • Prof. John Plane (UEA)

    • Dr. Howard Roscoe (BAS)

  • Joint funded

    • Prof. Nick Mitchell (Bath)


Polar atmosphere working group context
Polar Atmosphere Working Group: Context

  • PPARC “Solar system science strategy” (2002)

    • Three key themes

      • Energy flow in the solar system

      • Fundamental plasma processes

      • Conditions for life

  • NERC “Science for a sustainable future” (2002)

    • Importance of global change

    • Solar effect on climate identified as a priority

  • Town Meeting – Coseners House 30/09/2003

    • Synergy between PPARC and NERC programmes

    • Cross-council working group to map out strategy


Polar atmosphere working group programmes
Polar Atmosphere Working Group: Programmes

  • MULTIPLEX (PPARC)

    • Fundamental physics of energy flow

    • Importance of non-linear coupling

    • New emphasis on active techniques

    • Based on facilities already in operating plan

    • Cost £8m over five years, but only £1m is new money

  • DEEVERT (PPARC/NERC)

    • Effects of solar variability on climate

    • Importance of non-linear coupling and wave processes

    • Combines PPARC and NERC observation and modelling

    • Uses many of same facilities as MULTIPLEX

    • Cost £10m over five years, half from NERC

    • £0.5m new money from PPARC, leverages £5m from NERC


Solar terrestrial energy flow
Solar-terrestrial energy flow

  • The problem:

    • Good macroscopic description of energy transfer processes exists…..

      …but lacks predictive power

    • Energy flow depends critically on non-linear coupling

    • Need to know which mechanisms are important and when

    • Need to understand how system evolves from one state to another


Solar-Terrestrial Energy Flow

Anomalous resistivity

Solar energy

input

Solar

wind

Magnetic reconnection

Induced

E-fields

Ion drift

SW energetic particles

Plasma irregularities and turbulence

Storage and release

Neutral

wind

Electron and proton aurora

Acceleration

mechanisms

Anomalous heating

Joule

dissipation

Conductivity

Ionospheric electrodynamics

Composition, circulation heat balance

Electro-magnetic

radiation

Chemistry and transport

Ionisation and

particle heating


Solar terrestrial energy flow1
Solar-terrestrial energy flow

  • The problem:

    • Good macroscopic description of energy transfer processes exists…..

      …but lacks predictive power

    • Energy flow depends critically on non-linear coupling

    • Need to know which mechanisms are important and when

    • Need to understand how system evolves from one state to another

  • Strategy for solution:

    • Active experiments allow us to stimulate non-linear processes

    • New, improved diagnostics

    • Synthesis of experimentation and modelling


The multiplex programme
The MULTIPLEX programme

  • Why now ?

    • Paradigm shift from phenomenology to directed experimentation

    • New active experimental techniques

    • Major new UK facilities (e.g. SPEAR)

    • Novel data raising new insights and questions

  • Why UK ?

    • UK is world-leading in active experimentation

    • UK has access to world-class instruments

    • UK has state-of-the-art numerical models

    • UK has excellent track record of exploiting international programmes


EISCAT Tromsø HF Heater


Artificial aurora
Artificial Aurora

Rings form initially, collapsing into blobs

Rayed structures form along magnetic field


Non-thermal signatures show that collapse of rings corresponds to features descending in altitude


EISCAT shows that strong electron temperature enhancements occur…..

….but these cannot explain the observed emission



Dynamics of auroral arcs
Dynamics of auroral arcs processes are involved.


Dynamics of auroral arcs1
Dynamics of auroral arcs processes are involved.


Anomalous echoes from natural aurora
Anomalous echoes from natural aurora processes are involved.

  • coherent scatter from ion acoustic waves

  • structure size under 300 m at 500 km altitude

  • varies on 0.2 second time scale


The EISCAT Svalbard Radar processes are involved.



SPEAR, CUTLASS and the ESR processes are involved.


On processes are involved.

Off

Off

Plasma line amplitude

On

Off

Off

Ion line amplitude


The multiplex programme goals
The MULTIPLEX programme: Goals processes are involved.

  • Understand energy exchange between magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere

    • Move from qualitative to quantitative understanding

  • Quantify role of non-linear coupling in

    • Auroral acceleration and structure

    • Field-aligned currents and waves

    • Ionospheric irregularities

    • Non-thermal plasmas

    • Ion-neutral coupling

  • Linkages between processes at different scale sizes

  • Understanding key mechanisms

    • Proton aurora

    • Artificial aurora

    • Coherent echoes


The multiplex programme questions
The MULTIPLEX programme: Questions processes are involved.

  • What processes mediate energy flow ?

    • How important is non-linearity ?

    • Which non-linear processes are most important ?

    • How are they triggered ?

  • How can we explain observed phenomena ?

    • Auroral acceleration and structure

    • Field-aligned currents and waves

    • Ionospheric irregularities

    • Non-thermal plasmas

    • Ion-neutral coupling

  • Same questions important for whole plasma universe.


The multiplex programme facilities
The MULTIPLEX programme: Facilities processes are involved.

  • EISCAT

    • Definitive measurements of plasma parameters

    • Active experiment capabilities

  • SPEAR

    • Unique new UK facility for active plasma experiments

  • CUTLASS

    • Measurements of global electrodynamics

    • Essential support for SPEAR and EISCAT experiments

  • SIF/Tromso Imager

    • Studies of auroral energisation and structure

  • FPI/SCANDI

    • Understanding scale sizes in thermosphere dynamics

  • Magnetometers

    • Relating ULF waves and field-aligned currents

  • Riometers

    • Wide-scale measurements of energetic particles


Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) processes are involved.

 Seen in EISCAT radar in last 15 years

 Charged dust/ice? Breaking of upgoing gravity waves?

 Early phase in the formation of noctilucent clouds?

PMSE


PMSE modulation using the EISCAT Heater processes are involved.

Overshoot effect – Lower dust density, or larger dust grains ??


Eiscat
EISCAT processes are involved.


The importance of eiscat
The importance of EISCAT processes are involved.

  • EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    • Essential for understanding SPEAR science

    • Unique new auroral interferometry capability

    • Invaluable context for optical data

  • EISCAT UHF Radars

    • Tristatic capability unique for electrodynamics

    • Essential for ionosphere-thermosphere coupling

    • Unique IPS capability for solar wind studies

  • EISCAT VHF Radar

    • Optimised for low-density plasma (mesosphere and topside)

    • Essential for full height profiles of dynamics

  • Tromso HF Heater

    • World’s leading facility for active experiments in plasma physics

    • Unique active experiments on mesopause phenomena


Extended runs of high latitude data
Extended runs of high latitude data… processes are involved.

5-23 February 2001


Present IS Radar Status processes are involved.

10 radars operate routinely


Amisr
AMISR processes are involved.

Advanced

Modular

Incoherent

Scatter

Radar

384 Panels, 12,288 AEUs

3 DAQ Systems

3 Scaffold Support Structures


Phased array is radar
Phased array IS radar processes are involved.

32 AEUs = 1 panel

AEU

2 panels on far-field test rig

Possible Andøya deployment

128 panels = 1 face (4096 AEUs) at ~2MW


International polar year
International Polar Year processes are involved.

  • 2007 is the next International Polar Year (and the 50th, 75th, and 125th anniversaries of the International Geophysical Year and the first two International Polar Years).

  • Will run (at least) the high-latitude incoherent scatter radars for the entire year as part of the ICESTAR/IHY ‘cluster’.


Aims of multiplex
Aims of MULTIPLEX processes are involved.

  • Quantify temporal and spatial variability of energy deposition

  • Study large and small-scale energy transfer processes

  • Focus on energy coupling and non-linearity

  • Exploit both natural and artificially-generated processes

  • Assimilate data into models for predictive studies

  • Synergy with other studies (CAWSES, LTCS, DEEVERT, ISPAM)

  • Establish a legacy of instruments available after IPY


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