Unit I: Colonialism and the American Revolution Examining the formation of the American Identity
Essential Questions:1. What elements in colonial society fostered revolution?2. How did the issues of the American Revolution contribute to the formation of a unique American Identity?
Colonial AmericaAmerican Pageant Chapters 2-4 1500s-1750s
Planting English America • America was multicultural from the beginning. • Who came before the English? • Spanish: South America and Southeast • French: Interior, Canada and Louisiana • What were some of the issues they experienced? • Who did they affect in their pursuit of the New World? • What led the English to colonize America?
Planting English America Incentives for Colonization: Resources • Wool: The demand for wool made many in England use their land for Sheep herding rather than farming. • Food: The supply declined while the population was rebounding from the plague. People needed LAND. • Mercantilism: This is the belief that the world’s wealth was finite. One person or nation could grow wealthy at the expense of another. This led to a dash for land in the New World for RESOURCES. • All this contributes to the industrial revolution and the great changes in Europe - leading to the other incentive to find new lands - Religion.
Planting English America Incentives for Colonization: Reformation • Martin Luther: Germany 1517. He challenged some of the basic principles of Catholicism. The 95 theses led the movement against the church. • John Calvin: Rejected the notion that human behavior affected salvation. Believed in predestination. God “elected” those who would succeed. • English Reformation: King Henry VIII broke ties with the Catholic church, making himself the head of the Church of England. The Pope refused to grant a divorce from his wife. This led to widespread issues among Catholics and Protestants. • Queen Mary: After the death of the King brought back the Catholic church. • Elizabeth I: Upon taking the throne, severed ties with the church once again. • Puritans and Separatists: Wanted to completely reject the Catholic doctrine. They felt that the Church of England was too much like the old church.
Planting English America First Colonies in America Roanoke: The Lost Colony • Charter: Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Walter Raleigh obtained permission to begin a venture into the New World. Gilbert was lost at sea in 1583 and left Raleigh with the charter. • The Colony: With Sir Richard Grenville, the two led a small group of men to Roanoke island. Grenville left the colony to fend for themselves in 1585. The settlers had a difficult time with the Natives and the venture was abandoned. • Croatoan: In 1587, they tried again, leaving a group on the island. This time the colony disappeared. After the war with the Spanish in 1588, the English reurned to only find CROATOAN etched on a tree.
Planting English America First Colonies in America Jamestown • Aftermath of Roanoke: The failed venture defined the next attempts in many ways: 1. Colonies became businesses; 2. Most colonies were tied to the crown; 3. Each colony would transplant a piece of the English society; 4. Nothing worked out as planned • Early Chesapeake: 104 settlers survived the journey to America and settled on the shores of the Chesapeake bay in 1607. They established a colony on a river they names James. They called the colony Jamestown. • Problems and Leadership: Malaria and other epidemics plagued the colonists. JOHN SMITH a 27 year old traveler took the lead and devised a system, imposing work and order to help the colony.
Planting English America First Colonies in America Jamestown • Virginia Company: Was the business venture that led to the creation of Jamestown. Through Indenture Servitude they gave settlers free passage to Virginia as long as they provided 5-7 years of service. • Starving Time: From 1609-1610 the colony experienced drought and disease. The Native Americans from the region fought the settlers, keeping them in the fort. They lived on anything possible. • John Smith Recounts the Starving Time • The starving time is representative of the “clash of cultures” that happened in the New World. It led to issues with the Powhatan (The Native American Chief) and the settlers.
Planting English America First Colonies in America Jamestown • First Anglo-Powhatan War: Lord De La Warr came to the colony after the starving time and declared war against the Native Americans. The peace settlement ended with John Rolfe’s marriage to Pocahontas. • Tobacco: Rolfe figured out a way to harvest the tobacco, saving the colony from financial ruin. Indentured servants were originally the primary labor force for the colonies, but in 1619 the first slaves were introduced to the colonies from a Dutch Ship. • War: Despite the cooperation between Rolfe and the Natives, another attack came from the Powhatan in 1622, which killed Rolfe and other settlers. • Second Anglo-Powhatan War: in 1644 the Natives tried to remove the settlers one last time, but failed. Eventually the Native Americans were no longer a factor in the region.
Planting English America First Colonies in America Jamestown Question to discuss • How does the treatment of the Powhatan set the tone for future relation with Native Americans and the English? • How does this treatment contribute to the development of American Identity?
Maryland Maryland and the Calverts • George Calvert: The first lord of Baltimore, wanted to establish a colony in the new world, but died before he could achieve this goal. He was a Catholic Convert and wanted a place to get away from Anglican oppression. His son achieved the charter in 1632. • The Ark and The Dove brought the new settlers to the new colony and established it. • They wanted Catholics but needed the Protestants to make the colony fruitful. Therefore, the colony had Catholics in the minority. 1649: they instilled the Act of Toleration, which guaranteed the freedom to express what ever religion they wanted. • Maryland soon became the center of Tobacco cultivation and brought money in from that cash crop.
Restoration Colonies The English Civil War • Charles I: Dissolved Parliament in 1629. In need of money, he brought them back in 1640 to levy taxes on the people. He dismissed them twice in the next tow years and the members of Parliament organized a military force against the King. • Cavaliers vs. The Roundheads: Cavaliers (Supporters of the King) and Roundheads (Puritans who were against the King from Parliament) battled for seven years. 1649the Roundheads defeated the King and beheaded him. • Oliver Cromwell replaced the King and assumed the role as protector. Cromwell died in 1658 and two years later King Charles II son of the beheaded monarch came back to regain the throne in what became known as the restoration. Charles II rewarded the faithful with lands in the New World (Carolina, NY, NJ, and Penn.)
Restoration Colonies The Carolinas • John Locke: Helped draw up the State Constitution in 1669 after the people came over to Charlestown and Port Royal. The King would eventually make them separate colonies. • North: Many people from Virginia came to the colony to help establish it. It began to distinguish itself from the south. Rice was a major export for both colonies. Also, the colonies were able to export resources such as lumber and indigo to England.
Restoration Colonies Georgia • The English needed a barrier between the colonies and the Spanish. Originally developed to assist in this venture, it slowly had a similar society to that of South Carolina. • General James Oglethorpe was the man who led the settlers there and began to fortify the colony. • Oglethorpe made it into a debtors colony - helping those who had financial ruin.