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TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OVERVIEW OF FUEL CELLS PowerPoint Presentation
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TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OVERVIEW OF FUEL CELLS

TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OVERVIEW OF FUEL CELLS

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TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OVERVIEW OF FUEL CELLS

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  1. TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OVERVIEW OF FUEL CELLS by R.K.BHATTACHARYA General Manager(EM) Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Corporate Research & Development Division , Vikas Nagar,Hyderabad

  2. THE EVOLUTION ……….MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO, THERE WAS NO MAN KIND..…… ONLY PRE-HISTORIC LIVING SPECIES.. CLIMATE/ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE (NATURAL) ……….RESULTED IN THE EVOLUTION OF MANKIND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE (MAN-MADE) ……..LOGICALLY WILL SEE THE EXTINCTION OF THE PRESENT LIVING FORMS UNLESS WE DO SOMETHING ABOUT REVERSING WHAT WE ARE DOING

  3. - ENERGY THE KEY FACTOR • ENERGY IS THE PRIME MOVER FOR THE WHEELS OF LIFE • QUEST FOR NEW SOURCES & NEW CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES TO USABLE FORMS • EARTH-THE HOLDING POT OF SUM TOTAL OF ALL FORMS OF ENERGY • STILL ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS WILL DICTATE FORMS OF LIFE

  4. THE GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO • WORLD POPULATION EXPECTED TO GROW TO 8 BILLION IN 2020 • WILL REQUIRE 90 BILLION bpd OF OIL • 7 B.TONS OF COAL/YR • 40 TRILLION Cu.M/YR OF NG • 50% OF THIS ENERGY WILL BE REQUIRED IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

  5. THE INDIAN SCENARIO • 16% OF WORLD POPULATION WITH 0.6% OF OIL & 6% OF COAL RESOURCES. • IN 2000-01, ENERGY SHORTAGE - 7.8%, PEAK LOAD SHORTAGE -13%. • PER CAPITA ENERGY CONSUMPTION IS FAR LESS COMPARED TO GLOBAL STANDARDS (482 kWHr IN 1997 - CHINA 922 - WORLD 1562). • BY 2025, INDIA WILL BE THE MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY IN THE WORLD. • COUPLED WITH THE GDP GROWTH REQUIREMENTS, THE ADDITIONAL ENERGY REQUIREMENT WILL BE MIND BOGGLING. HOW DO WE MANAGE THIS? -------------------

  6. ----------- THE ANSWER WILL HAVE TO BE FOUND ON BOTH SIDES OF THE EQUATION. (SOURCE, TECHNOLOGY, EFFICIENCY) (ALTERNATIVES, EQUIPMENT, LIFE STYLE) ------------STILL, WE CAN NOT AVOID THE INEVITABLE, BUT WE CAN DELAY THE SAME. ENERGY SUPPLY = ENERGY DEMAND

  7. ELECTRICITY ACCESS (BASE YEAR 2000) ELECTRIFICATION RATE ( %) WORLD - 72.8 DEV COUNTRIES - 64.2 OECD - 99.2 INDIA - 43.0 CHINA - 98.6 SRILANKA - 62.0 PAKISTAN - 52.9 BANGLADESH - 20.4.

  8. COAL OIL FOSSIL FUEL NATURAL GAS SOLAR PV / THERMAL HYDRO RENEWABLES WIND BIO - MASS NUCLEAR OTHER AVAILABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY

  9. FOCUS ON FUEL CELLS OUR PRESENT LIFESTYLE CANNOT DO AWAY WITH FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SOURCES IMMEDIATELY. BUT, ADOPTING ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS WITH HIGHER EFICIENCY WILL REDUCE GH GAS GENERATION. FUEL CELLS MEET THIS REQUIREMENT ADEQUATELY. ALSO, BEING A COMBUTIONLESS SYSTEM THERE IS NO EMISSSION OF SOX/NOX.

  10. Part I : Fuel Cell Technology- an Overview

  11. Principle of Operation of a Typical Fuel Cell

  12. Repeating elements used in a typical cell stack

  13. Major sub-systems in a typical Fuel Cell Power Plant

  14. Benefits of Fuel Cells • Fuel cells provide a range of critical benefits that no other single power-generating technology can match. • Some of the key characteristics of fuel cells are : • Fuel Cells are Efficient – even at part loads • Fuel Cells are modular • Fuel Cells provide high availability and reliability • Fuel Cells can operate on a variety of fuels • Fuel Cells are Clean & Quiet

  15. Fuel Cell Type Temp of Operation [oC] Unit Sizes [kWe] Most likely applications Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) RT – 100 < 100 Space , Military recently terrestrial applications Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) RT – 100 0.1 - 100 Portable devices like Lap Tops, Cellular phones, Video Cameras etc Domestic & Dedicated Power (+ heat) Buses, Passenger Cars, Service Vehicles, Railway Locomotives & Streetcars etc Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) 100 – 210 5 - 200 (also MW sized plants) Dedicated Power (+ heat), Railways Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 650 100 - 2,000 (plants up to 100 MW) Dispersed Power & Utility Power (Combined Cycle -with downstream Steam Turbine) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 800-1000 2.5 – 250 (plants up to 100 MW) Domestic & Commercial (heat and power), Utility Power (combined cycle) Mobile applications for railways Types of Fuel Cells

  16. PEMFC AFC PAFC MCFC SOFC Electrolyte Ion Exchange Membrane Potassium Hydroxide Phosphoric Acid Molten carbonates Ceramic Oxides Catalyst Platinum non platinum Platinum Nickel Perovskite Operating Temp 0 C RT-80 RT-80 180-205 650 800-1000 Electrical Efficiency (%LHV) 32-40 50-60 36-42 45-60 50-60 Applications Cogeneration    Utility Power    Distributed Power     Passenger Vehicles   Heavy Duty Vehicles   Portable Power   Specialty Power  

  17. PEMFC AFC PAFC MCFC SOFC Advantages High Power density, Light weight, quick response Low cost high efficiency, Co tolerant Co tolerance up to 1.5% Multi fuel capability Inexpensive catalysts Multi fuel capability Efficiencies up to 60% Disadvantages Humidification required CO Intolerance Platinum& Membrane pushes the cost upwards Requires inlet air scrubbers. Circulating Alkali requires toping up Expensive platinum catalyst used. Low current& power. Large size& weight High temperatures enhance corrosion and the breakdown of cell components. Not yet available commercially

  18. Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

  19. PEMFC applications

  20. MCFC &DFC applications

  21. SOFC tubular and planer design

  22. Simple-cycle Atmospheric SOFC Cogeneration System 100 kW SOFC Cogeneration System formerly at Westervoort, the Netherlands, currently at Essen, Germany. As of January 2002 the system has operated in a total of 20,000+ hours. The system has a peak power of ~140 kW, typically feeding 109 kW into the local grid and 64 kW of hot water into the local district heating system, and is operating at an electrical efficiency of 46%.

  23. World's First Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid now Operating in California 220-kW hybrid system with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator and a down-stream micro-turbine SOFC stack

  24. Part II : BHEL’s Activities in Fuel Cell Area

  25. Fuel Cells at BHEL(History of Development) • 1987-1990: Started work on PAFC. Made single cells and small stacks (100-200 cm2) • 1991: Demonstrated a 1 kW stack (chlor-alkali plant, 40 cells,with imported bipolar plates, ~400 cm2) • 1995: Demonstrated 5 kW stacks (chlor-alkali plant, 80 cells, ~900 cm2, Laminated bipolar plates, 300*400 mm, Rolled electrodes) • 2001: Demonstrated 2*25 kW stacks (chlor-alkali plant, 160 cells / stack, ~1600 cm2, molded bipolar plates, screen printed electrodes) • 2002:Acquired basic PEMFC technology from IISc,single cell testing

  26. The 50kW Power Pack during testing at BHEL R&D during December 2000

  27. Salient features of 50 kW stack (2 x 25 kW fuel cell stack) • 2 x 25 kW stacks • Plate area 500mm x 400mm = 2000 sqcm • Effective Cell Area = 1500 sqcm • Number of cells in each stack = 160 • Air cooling system • Water to air Heat exchanger system • Inverter and DC loading system • Data acquisition and storage system • Current densities achieved in the range of 200 to 250 mA/sqcm • Operating voltage in the range of 550 to 600 mV per cell

  28. 200 kW PC 25 C PAFC Power Plant at BHEL R&D

  29. Part III :Fuel Cell Application Opportunities in India

  30. Fuel Cells Application in India Railways • Passenger Coaches’ lighting and fans • 4 kW systems mounted on the passenger coach • Requirement 4500 coaches • Power cars for long distance Shatabdi & Rajdhani • 200 kW systems / 2 per train / 25 trains • Illumination of level crossing • Up to 1 kW systems / Around 8000 to 10000 • Lighting of isolated railway stations • 5 to 10 kW systems / Up to 1000 stations • Emergency power supply for control rooms • 10-25 kW systems / Up to 200 - 500 control rooms

  31. Fuel Cells Application in India Transportation • Two Wheeler 4 kW systems / 75,000 to 1,00,000 • Three Wheeler 6-8 kW systems / 25,000 to 50,000 • Buses 100 kW systems / 1,000 to 5,000 • Merchant Navy 100-200 kW / 100 to 200

  32. Fuel Cells Application in India Strategic • Data Processing centres 1- 5 kW systems / around 5,000 • Soft ware Companies 25 – 50kW / around 1,000 • Communication Centres 1-5 kW systems / around 20,000 • Remote Area Installations 1-2 kW systems / around 1,000 • Off shore oil rig installations 25-50 kW systems up to 500

  33. Fuel Cells Application in India Commercial establishments • Shops in Malls and Underground bazaars 1 to 3 kW systems / around 1,00,000 • Small Business Establishments 5-10 kW systems / 50,000 • Entertainment Industry 25-50 kW systems / 500 to 1,000 • Hotels, restaurants & Resorts 100-200 kW systems / up to 500 units • Hospitals 200-500 kW systems / up to 200 units • Residential Complexes 50-200 kW systems / 30,000 to 50,000

  34. Part IV : Issues in Fuel Cell Application in DPG

  35. Distributed Generation • Rural (Remote areas) • Urban ( Hotels ,Hospitals ,Ent.centres, Software dev. centres) • Strategic (Communication centres, Defense, Chemicals and Pharmaceutical plants)

  36. Fuel options Urban :- Hydrogen,NG,Methanol,LPG, Di-gas Rural :- Ethanol ,Biogas Strategic:- Hydrogen, NG, LPG, Methanol Technology of fuel cells will depend upon the type of fuel available

  37. Capacity /Duty cycle Urban/Strategic – High Power Capacity – Base Load (High temp.Fuel Cells) Rural – Low Power Capacity – Cyclic Load (Low temp.Fuel Cells) No.of start stops will determine the life cycle of HT fuel cells.

  38. Other Issues • Starting power - Rural area (Black start) Others (Brown start) • Cost Factor - Still not affordable without Govt.subsidy • Market Size - Traditional tussle between cost and volume • Op.& Maint. - Being high technology item requires careful handling

  39. PART- V: AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELLS

  40. NEED VS GROUND REALITIES • WORLDWIDE, TRANSPORT VECHICLES ARE THE SINGLE LARGEST • CONTRIBUTOR TO THE GH GASES. IC ENGINES CONVERT FUEL’S • CHEMICAL ENERGY TO WHEEL POWER AT VERY LOW EFFICIENCIES. • THOUGH THE NEED FOR HIGHER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IS FELT • AND THE DESIRABILITY OF FUEL CELLS IS VINDICATED, PEOPLE • WOULD BE INFLUENCED BY: • - COST • - PERFORMANCE • - CONVENIENCE (INFRASTRUCTURE)

  41. ON BOARD PRESSURIZED GAS ON BOARD LIQUIFIED H2 ON BOARD REFORMER ON -BOARD METAL HYDRIDES FUEL - THE CRUCIAL FACTOR FROM GROUND BASED FUEL INFRASTRUCTURE (EXTERNAL REFORMATION) HYDROGEN VEHICLE PROPULSION SYSTEM FUEL CELL POWER STACK GASOLENE METHANOL HYDRIDE REPLENISHMENT FROM GROUND SOURCES

  42. ISSUES FOR EACH OPTION • . ON -BOARD PRESSURIZED HYROGEN : COMPRESSION PRESS 10000 PSI ; LARGE SPACE REQUIREMENT ; OCCUPIES EIGHT TIMES THE VOLUME OF GASOLENE. • . ON BOARD LIQUIFIED HYDROGEN:- HIGH ENERGY REQUIRED FOR COOLING THE GAS TO LIQUID IN CRYOGENIC TANKS (-2530C); HIGH COST OF CRYO TANKS. • . METHANOL REFORMATION : REFORMATION AT 260 - 300 0C ; TOXIC AND POISONOUS WITH INVISIBLE FLAME ; EASY TRANSPORTABILITY AND HANDLING ; EXISTING FUEL INFRASTRUCTURE CAN BE USED.

  43. ISSUES (CONTD) • 4. GASOLENE REFORMATION : REFORMATION AT 6000C ; LESS EFFICIENT THAN METHANOL AND PRODUCES MORE EMISSIONS ; EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE CAN BE USED. • .METAL HYDRIDES : PRESENTLY RARE-EARTH METAL HYDRIDES ONLY STORE 1.5 - 2.0% HYDROGEN BY WEIGHT ; RESULTANT WEIGHT MAKES IT UNVIABLE FOR CARS WITH RANGE OF 300 KMs ; REQUIRES GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE FOR RECHARGING. • . SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE : SAFE CARRIER OF HYDROGEN ; REQUIRES LESS VOLUME THAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN ; REQUIRES GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE.

  44. WHAT ARE AUTO MAJORS PURSUING ? DAIMLER.CHRYSLER LIQUIFIED HYDROGEN - NECAR 4 COMPRESSED HYDROGEN - NECAR 4a METHANOL - NECAR 5 & JEEP COMMANDER METAL HYDRIDE & - CHRYSLER NATRIUM SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE ( A MODIFIED MERCEDES - BENZ A - CLASS WILL RUN ON COMP. H2 IN 2004)

  45. TOYOTA COMPRESSED HYDROGEN - FCHV (KLUGER V) HONDA COMPRESSED HYDROGEN - FCX GM COMPRESSED HYDROGEN - HydroGen 3 (ACHIEVED HIGHEST STACK POWER DENSITY OF 1.75 kW/litre) FORD COMPRESSED HYDROGEN - FOCUS FCV (HYBRID)

  46. WHAT NEXT ?

  47. TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGE (FUEL CELLS) • NEED FOR QUICK-STARTING, MULTI-FUEL COMPACT REFORMER • LOW-COST MATERIALS (SPECIALLY, ELECTROLYTIC MEMBRANE) • LOW-COST NON-NOBLE MATERIAL CATALYST • LOW-COST MASS-PRODUCIBLE BIPOLAR PLATE • SIMPLIFIED LOW-COST POWER CONDITIONER

  48. The Future Despite all these difficulties, the Governments all over the world are pouring in money for Breakthroughs since this eco friendly technology could be the ULTIMATE WINNER !

  49. Thank You