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U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Overview. Greg Kleen. Education and Outreach Lead Fuel Cell Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy. 6/11/2014. Ohio Fuel Cell Symposium Elyria, OH. “All of the Above” for Sustainable Transportation. - EERE Technology Offices.

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U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Overview

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    1. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Overview Greg Kleen Education and Outreach Lead Fuel Cell Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 6/11/2014 Ohio Fuel Cell Symposium Elyria, OH

    2. “All of the Above” for Sustainable Transportation - EERE Technology Offices • Efficiency Improvement • Fuel Diversification • Domestic & Renewable Sources • Reduced GHG National Energy Goals & Climate Action Plan Reduce net oil imports by 50% by 2020, compared to 2008 Reduce GHG emissions >80% below 2005 levels by 2050

    3. Worldwide Investment & Interest Are Strong and Growing Interest in fuel cells and hydrogen is global, with more than $1 billion in public investment in RD&D annually. Worldwide fuel cell markets continue to grow (~30,000 units shipped in 2012; ~35% increase over 2011) Sources: Navigant Research, DOE Fuel Cells Market Report

    4. OverviewFuel Cells – An Emerging Global Industry Source: Clean Energy Patent Growth Index Top 10 companies for fuel cell patents: GM, Honda, Toyota, Samsung, UTC Power, Nissan, Ballard, Panasonic, Plug Power, Delphi Technologies • Clean Energy Patent Growth Index[1] shows growth in all clean energy technology patents • More than 1,000 fuel cell patents issued in 2012 [1] http://cepgi.typepad.com/heslin_rothenberg_farley_/2013/03/clean-energy-patent-growth-index-2011-year-in-review.html

    5. Fuel cells in the spotlight- examples President Obama inspects a fuel cartridge while at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology. Business case is emerging for fuel cell forklifts and ground support equipment

    6. Fuel cells in the spotlight- examples Hydrogen fuel cell powers remote camera at NASCAR event Hydrogen fuel cell powers lights at entertainment industry events

    7. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles at U.S. Auto Shows FCEVs on display at North American auto shows. Honda Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle To be launched in California in Summer 2014—lease includes free H2 and maintenance. Toyota Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    8. DOE Program: RD&D to Deployments DOE R&D • Reduces cost and improves performance DOE Demonstrations & Technology Validation Deployments • DOE Recovery Act and Market Transformation Projects • Government Early Adoption (DoD, FAA, California, etc.) • Tax Credits: 1603, 48C • Validate advanced technologies under real-world conditions • Feedback guides R&D Examples of progress: Transportation Fuel Cell System Cost - projected to high-volume (500,000 units per year) - Status: $55/kW (high vol) Target: $30/kW Recovery Act & Market Transformation Deployments Demonstrated >180 FCEVs, 25 stations, 3.6 million miles traveled • Reduced cost of fuel cells 50% since 2006 • 2020 target $40/kW, ultimate target $30/kW • Examples—validated: • 59% efficiency • 254 mile range (independently validated 430-mile range) • 75,000-mi durability Demonstrated world’s first tri-gen* station (250 kW fuel cell on biogas, 100 kg/d of H2) Nearly1,600 fuel cells deployed  Reduced cost of electrolyzer stacks 60% since 2007 Program also includes enabling activities such as codes & standards, analysis, and education. *Stationary fuel cell providing heat, hydrogen, and power.

    9. Fuel Cell Cost Reduction • Projected high-volume cost of fuel cells has been reduced to $55/kW (2013)* • More than 30% reduction since 2008 • More than 50% reduction since 2006 *Based on projection to high-volume manufacturing (500,000 units/year) and assuming Pt price is $1,500/troy ounce. The projected cost status is based on an analysis of state-of-the-art components that have been developed and demonstrated through the DOE Program at the laboratory scale.  Additional efforts would be needed for integration of components into a complete automotive system that meets durability requirements in real-world conditions.

    10. Hydrogen Production - Strategies Technology Readiness of DOE Funded Production Pathways NE FE Established Industrial Process High-temp Electrolysis STCH PEC 50,000 Natural Gas Reforming Coal Gasification With CCS Photo-biological Biomass Gasification Electrolysis (solar) Distributed Central Electrolysis (wind) Today - 20152015-20202020-2030 Natural Gas Reforming Electrolysis (Grid) Bio-derived liquids Fermentation Biomass pathways – mid term solar pathways- longer term P&D Subprogram R&D efforts successfully concluded FE, NE: R&D efforts in DOE Offices of Fossil and Nuclear Energy, respectively ≥500,000 Estimated Plant Capacity (kg/day) Up to 1,500 100,000

    11. Hydrogen ProductionStrategies Goal: Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic resources at a delivered and dispensed cost of $2-$4/gge H2 Projected High-Volume Cost of Hydrogen Production for Different Pathways • Cost ranges  are shown in 2007 dollars, based on projections from H2A analyses, and reflect variability in major feedstock pricing and a bounded range for capital cost estimates. • Projections of costs assume Nth-plant construction, distributed station capacities of 1,500 kg/day, and centralized station capacities of ≥50,000 kg/day.

    12. Hydrogen Delivery Station costs dominate delivery costs—key focus area. Refueling Station Cost Breakdown** * The use of 350 bar tube trailers has led to lower station costs, however they still account for >50% of the total projected delivery cost. • Delivery Focus • Identify cost drivers for H2 delivery in early market applications • Evaluate options to improve station compressor reliability • Investigate the role of higher-pressure tube trailers in reducing station costs * Details for the high volume cost projection assumptions can be found in Record 13013 **Based on HDSAM (v2.3) analysis assuming 10% market penetration in a city with a population of 1.5M and 2011 technology

    13. Hydrogen Storage Cost Reduction for Hydrogen Adsorption Systems Cost reduction Start Time to Full Flow (-20°C) Wells-to-Power Plant Efficiency Strategic Analysis 3X increase in tensile strength demonstrated in C-fiber from melt-spun PAN precursor (ORNL) Launched open source database* on Hydrogen Storage Materials Properties (http://hydrogenmaterialssearch.govtools.us/) * Included in President’s Materials Genome Initiative, http://www.whitehouse.gov/mgi

    14. Enabling Early Markets Deployments help catalyze market penetration and ensure continued technology utilization growth while providing data and lessons learned. Leveraging DOE Funds: Government as “catalyst” for market success of emerging technologies. ~9,000 ADDITIONAL FUEL CELL LIFT TRUCKS AND BACKUP POWER UNITS PLANNED OR INSTALLED with NO DOE funding • Examples of industry* sectors in DOE ARRA projects • Telecommunications (e.g. AT&T, PG&E. Sprint, etc.) • Distribution Centers/Warehouses (e.g. FedEx, Genco, Sysco, Wegmans, Whole Foods, etc.) DOE cost-shared deployments led to >5X additional purchases and orders. Lift Trucks Backup Power Lift Trucks BU Power *Provided as examples and not intended as endorsement

    15. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Initiatives at the State Level Several states—including California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Ohio, New York, and South Carolina—have major hydrogen and fuel cell programs underway. Northeast (e.g. MA, NY, CT) • 8 states sign MoU to put 3.3M zero-emission vehicles on roads by 2025 • States include California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, & Vermont • Represents a new vehicle market penetration of ~15% • Preliminary Plans: 3 phase plan modelled by CCAT for the development of hydrogen infrastructure and deployment of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) in the north eastern coastal metro centers. DRAFT California • FCEVs and Fuel Cell Buses • > 560 vehicles in operation since 1999 — ~230 currently operating • > 6million miles driven • > 1 million passengers on fuel cell buses • H2 Station Investment • $51.5M invested (CARB and CEC) • ~$13M invested by SCAQMD • ~$29.9M available (CEC PON 13-607) • $20M planned for 14/15 (CEC) • $20M annually thru 2023 for at least 100 stations (AB8) Hawaii • Agreement signed by 12 stakeholders—including GM, utilities, hydrogen providers, DOD, DOE—to establish hydrogen as a major part of the solution to Hawaii’s energy challenges. • 15 GM FCEVs currently in demonstrations with military • Renewable hydrogen (from geothermal and wind energy) will be used for buses • Goals include a public access nascent refueling infrastructure on Oahu by 2015 to support initial deployments of government and industry FCEV fleets Hydrogen Stations in Planning / Development Stage - OAHU

    16. Co-Launched Public-Private Partnership Mission: To promote the commercial introduction and widespread adoption of FCEVs across America through creation of a public-private partnership to overcome the hurdle of establishing hydrogen infrastructure. Current partners include (additional in process):

    17. Future Directions- Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) Future directions include increased cross-cutting activities and collaboration such as through DOE’s new national asset for energy systems integration research, development, and testing www.nrel.gov/esif

    18. Hydrogen Safety • Safety Information helps guide R&D. • It is critical to collect and disseminate relevant information. Two Looks at H2Incidents.org 210 Lessons Learned Events in "H2Incidents.org" Examples: Piping (36) Valve (36) Flexible Tubing (8) Gasket (6) Bolts (6) • Trained > 26,000 first-responders and code officials on hydrogen safety and permitting through on-line and in-classroom courses Announced by the U.S. Department of Energy September 2013

    19. FCTO Newsletter Visit FCTO’s website at hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov Sign up for the monthly newsletter at http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/fuel-cell-technologies-office-newsletter

    20. FCTO Webinars Check out the most recent webinars at http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/2014-webinar-archives

    21. Energy 101: Fuel Cells See Google+ Hangout discussion at: http://www.energy.gov/articles/live-discussion-energy-101-fuel-cells

    22. Key Reports Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program By PNNL, http://www.pnl.gov/ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pathways_2013.pdf The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency & Savings By FuelCells2000, http://www.fuelcells.org See report: http://www.fuelcells.org/pdfs/2013BusinessCaseforFuelCells.pdf State of the States 2013: Fuel Cells in America By FuelCells2000, http://www.fuelcells.org See report: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/state_of_the_states_2013.pdf Annual Merit Review - Upcoming Dates June 16-20, 2014 - Washington, D.C. June 8-12, 2015 - Arlington, VA June 6-10, 2016 - Washington, D.C. June 5-9, 2017 - Washington, D.C. http://annualmeritreview.energy.gov/

    23. Continue to promote and strengthen R&D activities Hydrogen, fuel cells, safety, manufacturing, etc. Cost, performance, durability need to be addressed Conduct strategic, selective demonstrations of innovative technologies Industry cost share and potential to accelerate market transformation Continue to conduct key analyses to guide RD&D and path forward Life cycle cost; economic & environmental analyses, etc. Leverage activities to maximize impact U.S. and global partnerships H2USA: Public-Private partnership to enable widespread commercialization of hydrogen vehicles in the United States Future Plans - Summary

    24. Examples of DOE-funded Partners and Locations – Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 12/2010

    25. Thank You Gregory.Kleen@go.doe.gov hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov